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Table 1 Different degrees of subjective loneliness in a German representative sample: Sociodemographic characteristics, health related variables, and distress

From: Loneliness in the general population: prevalence, determinants and relations to mental health

  No Slight Moderate Severe p-value*
loneliness loneliness loneliness loneliness
N (%) 13,124 (89.5) 720 (4.9) 569 (3.9) 248 (1.7)  
Sociodemographic variables
 Age (years) 55.1 ± 11.1 53.4 ± 10.6 53.0 ± 11.0 53.1 ± 11.1 < 0.0001
 Women 48.3 54.9 64.1 66.5 < 0.0001
 Partnership 84.7 55.4 54.3 42.1 < 0.0001
 Children 85.6 76.3 81.1 77.3 < 0.0001
 Living alone 11.7 36.7 36.1 48.5 < 0.0001
 Socioeconomic status 13.1 ± 4.4 12.4 ± 4.4 12.0 ± 4.4 11.4 ± 4.0 < 0.0001
 Unemployment 38.7 36.1 40.5 45.5 n.s.
Health related variables
 Smoker 18.5 26.1 27.4 31.8 < 0.0001
 BMI (kg/m2) 27.3 ± 4.9 27.6 ± 5.6 27.1 ± 5.4 28.4 ± 6.5 n.s.
 Alcohol gram/day 11.4 ± 16.7 10.3 ± 18.4 9.9 ± 17.8 8.5 ± 19.6 < 0.0001
 Antidepressant 4.5 11.0 15.0 24.8 < 0.0001
 Anxiolytic 0.8 2.3 1.6 3.3 < 0.0001
 Visited physician past month 41.9 48.3 52.3 63.4 < 0.0001
 Inpatient treatment past year 13.0 14.7 19.5 21.1 < 0.0001
Distress
 Current depression (PHQ-8 ≥ 10) 5.2 19.3 30.5 52.6 < 0.0001
 Generalized anxiety (GAD) > = 3 4.8 12.9 25.7 40.2 < 0.0001
 Panic attack (past 4 weeks) 4.6 10.2 13.6 30.0 < 0.0001
 Suicidal ideation 5.6 18.9 26.4 41.8 < 0.0001
 Type D 20.5 46.5 54.7 55.1 <0.0001
  1. Note: *chi2 or Kruskal Wallis test; numerical values with standard deviation are mean scores, values without standard deviation are percentages