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Table 1 Demographic data and clinical Information

From: Brain structure differences among male schizophrenic patients with history of serious violent acts: an MRI voxel-based morphometric study

  Forensic group   Statistical analysis
  Total ( n = 34) Premeditated action group ( n = 15) Impulsive group ( n = 19) Control patient group ( n = 23) Forensic ( n = 34) vs. Control ( n = 23) a Premeditated ( n = 15) vs. Control b Impulsive ( n = 19) vs. Control c
  Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD t or U df p t or U df p t or U df p
Age, years (range) 40.6 ± 9.5 (22–58) 44.1 ± 9.2 37.9 ± 9.1 36.8 ± 11.0 (20–53) 1.385 55 0.172 2.112 36 0.042 0.338 40 0.737
Duration of education, years 12.4 ± 2.7 11.9 ± 2.2 12.9 ± 3.1 14.4 ± 2.0 2.965 55 0.004 3.673 36 0.001 1.939 40 0.060
Substance abuse, Alcohol/Others/Both 2/6/2 1/3/0 1/3/2 0/0/0          
Age of onset 25.4 ± 7.2 26.3 ± 8.5 24.7 ± 6.1 22.0 ± 6.7 1.834 55 0.072 1.743 36 0.090 1.398 40 0.170
Duration of illness, years 15.6 ± 10.0 18.0 ± 10.6 13.8 ± 9.3 15.0 ± 10.4 0.227 55 0.822 0.854 36 0.399 0.403 40 0.689
Duration of untreated psychosis, months 26.2 ± 41.8 36.2 ± 55.3 18.3 ± 26.2 18.8 ± 36.3 465   0.219 216   0.202 249   0.429
Duration of medication a , years 13.2 ± 10.2 14.4 ± 10.5 12.2 ± 10.1 13.6 ± 10.1 0.164 55 0.870 0.233 36 0.817 0.457 40 0.650
Medication dose, mg d 706.9 ± 606.4 682.3 ± 543.7 726.3 ± 665.7 477.3 ± 434.8 476.5   0.164 212.5   0.235 264   0.249
Medication type, Typical/Atypical/Both/Non 2/18/13/1 1/5/8/1 1/13/5/1 2/12/4/5 7.000 3 0.072 f 5.883 3 0.117 f 7.041 3 0.071 f
PANSS e              
Positive 12.2 ± 4.8 14.3 ± 5.3 10.5 ± 3.8 9.4 ± 3.6 2.356 55 0.022 3.445 36 0.001 0.952 40 0.347
Negative 17.1 ± 7.0 19.7 ± 6.7 15.0 ± 6.8 14.7 ± 6.2 1.292 55 0.202 2.344 36 0.025 0.130 40 0.897
Disorganization 8.4 ± 3.2 9.2 ± 3.4 7.7 ± 2.9 6.8 ± 3.7 1.737 55 0.088 2.020 36 0.051 0.910 40 0.368
Depressive 6.7 ± 2.6 7.4 ± 2.9 6.1 ± 2.3 7.0 ± 3.2 0.420 55 0.676 0.395 36 0.695 1.024 40 0.312
Excitement 8.3 ± 3.5 8.4 ± 3.4 8.2 ± 3.8 6.7 ± 3.0 1.775 55 0.081 1.627 36 0.112 1.450 40 0.155
Intracranial volume, ml 1619.8 ± 154.2 1589.4 ± 173.6 1643.7 ± 137.1 1618.0 ± 136.8 0.045 55 0.964 0.565 36 0.576 0.606 40 0.548
  1. a Forensic group vs. control patient group
  2. b Premeditated action group vs control patient group
  3. c Impulsive group vs control patient group
  4. d Chlorpromazine equivalent
  5. e The Wallwork/Fortgang five-factor model for PANSS
  6. f Likelihood ratio test