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Table 1 Demographic characteristics of HD patients with low and normal mood

From: Prevalence and related factors of depressive symptoms in hemodialysis patients in northern China

  Number of subjects
n = 227
Normal mood
(CES-D < 16)
n = 161
Low mood (CES-D > =16)
n = 66
p value
Gender, n (%)     0.058
 Male 121(53.3%) 85(52.8%) 36(54.6%)  
 Female 106(46.7%) 76(47.2%) 30(45.4%)  
 Age (years)(mean ± SD)a   49.13 ± 14.20 49.65 ± 14.60 0.804
HD duration (months)     0.351
  ≤ 24 71(31.2%) 54(33.5%) 17(25.8%)  
 25–60 78(34.4%) 56(34.8%) 22(33.3%)  
 >60 78(34.4%) 51(31.7%) 27(40.9%)  
Marital status, n (%)     0.820
 Married 181(79.7%) 129(80.1%) 52(78.8%)  
 others 46(20.3%) 32(19.9%) 14(21.2%)  
Educational level     0.922
  ≤ Junior high school 94(41.4%) 67(41.6%) 27(40.9%)  
 >Junior high school 133(58.6%) 94(58.4%) 39(59.1%)  
Monthly income per person (Yuan)     0.008**
 <800 42(18.5%) 25(15.5%) 17(25.8%)  
 800–1499 49(21.6%) 28(17.4%) 21(31.8%)  
 1500–2999 75(33.0%) 58(36.0%) 17(25.8%)  
 3000–4999 39(17.2%) 34(21.1%) 5(7.6%)  
  ≥ 5000 22(9.7%) 16(9.9%) 6(9.1%)  
Primary kidney disease     0.445
 Chronic glomerulonephritis 116(51.1%) 87(54.0%) 29(43.9%)  
 Diabetic nephropathy 19(8.4%) 13(8.1%) 6(9.1%)  
 Hypertension 22(9.7%) 13(8.1%) 9(13.6%)  
 Others 70(30.8%) 48(29.8%) 22(33.3%)  
Ca (mmol/L)(mean ± SD)a   2.11 ± 0.30 2.18 ± 0.28 0.074
P (mmol/L)(median(IQR))b,c   2.08(1.05) 1.95(1.30) 0.768
PTH (pmol/L)(median(IQR))b,c   36.67(122.05) 29.12(36.06) 0.300
Total weekly urea Kt/V (mean ± SD)a 1.4 ± 0.5 1.4 ± 0.5 1.4 ± 0.5 0.606
Religion     0.850
 No 198(87.2%) 140(87.0%) 58(87.9%)  
 Yes 29(12.8%) 21(13.0%) 8(12.1%)  
BMI     0.155
 <25 182(80.2%) 125(77.6%) 57(86.4%)  
  ≥ 25 45(19.8%) 36(22.4%) 9(13.6%)  
Concern about arteriovenous fistula     0.032*
 Always 67(29.5%) 43(26.7%) 24(36.4%)  
 Frequently 37(16.3%) 22(13.7%) 15(22.7%)  
 Not at all 123(54.2%) 96(59.6%) 27(40.9%)  
Renal disease duration (months)     0.382
  ≤ 40 71(31.3%) 46(28.6%) 25(37.9%)  
 41–89 82(36.1%) 61(37.9%) 21(31.8%)  
  ≥ 90 74(32.6%) 54(33.5%) 20(30.3%)  
Activities of daily living   15.4 ± 3.9 18.1 ± 6.3 <0.001***
SF-36 (mean ± SD)a     
 Physical functioning   81.1 ± 18.3 67.7 ± 24.4 <0.001***
 Role limitation due to physical problems   53.1 ± 40.7 28.8 ± 38.0 <0.001***
 Role limitation due to emotional problems   78.9 ± 32.6 44.9 ± 45.5 <0.001***
 Social functioning   69.4 ± 22.2 47.3 ± 24.8 <0.001***
 Mental health   85.7 ± 12.8 54.9 ± 22.9 <0.001***
 Energy and vitality   69.1 ± 18.7 42.8 ± 21.0 <0.001***
 Bodily pain   82.4 ± 25.7 63.6 ± 34.1 <0.001***
 General perception of health   49.3 ± 20.2 29.1 ± 16.9 <0.001***
Social support (mean ± SD)a     
 Family support   25.3 ± 2.6 23.5 ± 3.6 <0.001***
 Outside family support   44.5 ± 8.9 37.7 ± 11.1 <0.001***
Coping style (mean ± SD)a     
 Confrontation   18.8 ± 4.5 17.9 ± 4.5 0.149
 Avoidance   18.1 ± 3.3 17.1 ± 3.1 0.041*
 Acceptance-resignation   10.6 ± 1.9 11.9 ± 2.3 <0.001***
Self-efficacy (mean ± SD)a   29.7 ± 6.7 24.4 ± 7.6 <0.001***
Ego resiliency (mean ± SD)a   41.1 ± 7.9 36.4 ± 6.9 <0.001***
  1. * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001
  2. a Independent-samples t test
  3. b Median and inter-quartile range
  4. c Mann-Whitney U test