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Table 4 Polydrug abuse based on LC-TOFMS urine analysesa

From: Polydrug abuse among opioid maintenance treatment patients is related to inadequate dose of maintenance treatment medicine

  Total sample
(n = 60)
Inadequate dose
(n = 39)
Adequate dose
(n = 21)
p
Positive urine samples 39 (65.0%) 31 (51.7%) 8 (13.3%) 0.002
Number of groups of abused substances 1.6 ± 1.5
(0–4)
2.0 ± 1.5
(0–4)
0.9 ± 1.4
(0–4)
0.005
BZD-positive 29 (48.3%) 24 (40.0%) 5 (8.3%) 0.007
 Oxazepam 23 (38.3%) 19 (31.7%) 4 (6.7%) 0.029
 Temazepam 21 (35.0%) 17 (28.3%) 4 (6.7%) NS
 Desmethyldiazepam 17 (28.3%) 15 (25.0%) 2 (3.3%) 0.019
 Alprazolam 10 (16.7%) 9 (15.0%) 1 (1.7%) NS
 Clonazepam 7 (11.7%) 6 (10.0%) 1 (1.7%) NS
 Midazolam 3 (5.0%) 3 (5.0%) 0 (0%) NS
 Nitrazepam 2 (3.3%) 1 (1.7%) 1 (1.7%) NS
 Bromazepam 1 (1.7%) 1 (1.7%) 0 (0%) NS
 Demoxepam 1 (1.7%) 1 (1.7%) 0 (0%) NS
 Lorazepam 1 (1.7%) 1 (1.7%) 0 (0%) NS
Amphetamine-positive 25 (41.7%) 21 (35.0%) 4 (6.7%) 0.013
 Amphetamine 25 (41.7%) 21 (35.0%) 4 (6.7%) 0.013
 Methamphetamine 2 (3.3%) 2 (3.3%) 0 (0%) NS
 Methylphenidate 1 (1.7%) 1 (1.7%) 0 (0%) NS
Cannabis-positive 18 (30.0%) 13 (21.7%) 5 (8.3%) NS
Opioid-positive 4 (6.7%) 3 (5.0%) 1 (1.7%) NS
 Buprenorphine 3 (5.0%) 2 (3.3%) 1 (1.7%) NS
 Norbuprenorphine 1 (1.7%) 1 (1.7%) 0 (0%) NS
 Fentanyl 1 (1.7%) 1 (1.7%) 0 (0%) NS
NPS-positive 5 (8.3%) 5 (8.3%) 0 (0%) NS
 Alpha-PVPb 2 (3.3%) 2 (3.3%) 0 (0%) NS
 MPAc 1 (1.7%) 1 (1.7%) 0 (0%) NS
 PV8d 3 (5.0%) 3 (5.0%) 0 (0%) NS
N-PPM-positivee 15 (25.0%) 12 (20.0%) 3 (5.0%) NS
 Pregabalin 10 (16.7%) 8 (13.3%) 2 (3.3%) NS
 Gabapentin 2 (3.3%) 2 (3.3%) 0 (0%) NS
 Quetiapine 3 (5.0%) 3 (5.0%) 0 (0%) NS
 Bupropion 2 (3.3%) 1 (1.7%) 1 (1.7%) NS
  1. aLiquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOFMS)
  2. bAlpha-pyrrolidinovalerophenone
  3. cMethiopropamine
  4. da-PHPP or alpha-pyrrolidinoheptiophenone
  5. eNon-prescribed psychotropic medicines