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Table 1 Characteristics of participants

From: Antenatal depressive symptoms and perinatal complications: a prospective study in rural Ethiopia

Characteristics Baseline (N=1311) Followed up (N=1240) Pearson Chi2
Variables Values N (%) N (%)
PHQ-9 Status PHQ < 5 924 (70.5) 884 (71.3) 0.2024 (p = 0.653)
PHQ ≥ 5 387 (29.5) 356 (28.7)
Marital Status Married 1293 (98.6) 1225 (98.8) 0.1331 (p = 0.715)
aSingle 18 (1.4) 15 (1.2)
Residence Urban 103 (7.9) 98 (7.9) 0.0700 (p = 0.790)
Rural 1208 (92.1) 1142 (92.1)
Alcohol use Non-users 875 (64.7) 828 (66.8) 0.0134 (p= 0.993)
Mild level users 359 (27.4) 338 (27.3)
Harmful level users 77 (5.9) 74 (6.0)
Household Income High 429 (32.7) 414 (33.4) 0.1700 (p = 0.919)
Medium 423 (32.3) 392 (31.6)
Low 459 (35.0) 434 (35.0)
Mother's Education Non-literate 878 (67.0) 841 (67.8) 0.2185 (p = 0.897)
Grade 1-8 380 (29.0) 351 (28.3)
Grade 9-12 and above 53 (4.0) 48 (3.9)
Parity Nulliparous 254 (19.4) 226 (18.2) 0.5506 (p = 0.759)
Primipara 193 (14.7) 185 (14.9)
Multipara 864 (65.9) 829 (66.8)  
Pregnancy intention Wanted 734 (56.0) 696 (56.1) 0.1823 (p = 0.913)
Mistimed 102 (7.8) 91 (7.3)
Unwanted 475 (36.2) 453 (36.5)
Pregnancy complications None 655 (50.1) 627 (50.6) 0.0926 (p = 0.761)
One or more 656 (49.9) 613 (49.4)
Chronic illness None 871 (66.4) 832 (66.5) 0.0014 (p= 0.971)
One or more 440 (33.6) 419 (33.5)
Perinatal outcomes Live birth -- 1169 (94.3) --
Pregnancy loss -- 52 (4.2)
Neonatal mortality   19 (1.5)  
  1. aSingle Marital Status= unmarried, widowed, divorced); Married = living with marital partner and married but living separate; Income was categorized into tertiles as low, medium and high; Social support score: minimum = 3; Maximum = 14; Mean=10.68; SD=2.00; Number of ANC visits: minimum = 0; Maximum= 8; Mean = 1.524; SD=1.50