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Table 3 Impact of Antenatal depressive symptoms on each of perinatal complications

From: Antenatal depressive symptoms and perinatal complications: a prospective study in rural Ethiopia

  Potential perinatal complications OR (95% CI)  
Mild Depression Major depression Risk/protective factors
Pregnancy complications Edema 2.86 (1.95, 4.17) 2.15 (1.19, 3.88) aMild Alcohol use
Blurred vision 2.11 (1.54, 2.91) 1.33 (0.80, 2.20) a(IPV, LTET, history perinatal mortality)
Severe headache 1.81 (1.34, 2.45) 2.47 (1.57, 3.90) a(Primary schooling, increased LTET)
Severe abdominal pain 2.41 (1.78, 3.27) 1.96 (1.23, 3.13)  
Abnormal discharge 2.17 (1.48, 3.20) 1.78 (0.98, 3.24) bHigh income
Burning sensation at urination 1.50 (1.04, 2.18) 2.24 (1.32, 3.79)  
One or more of any symptoms 2.47 (1.81, 3.38) 2.34 (1.44, 3.82) b(ANC use and high income)
labour complications Haemorrhage 1.94 (1.42, 2.64) 1.22 (0.75, 1.98) b(secondary schooling and more)
Convulsion 1.49 (1.10, 2.01) 1.21 (0.76, 1.91) bhigher parity, †pregnancy complications
Severe headache 1.87 (1.36, 2.57) 1.72 (1.07, 2.78) bprimary schooling, †pregnancy comps.
Unconsciousness 1.51 (0.99, 2.29) 1.39 (0.74, 2.61) apregnancy complications
Fever 2.01 (1.47, 2.74) 1.88 (1.17, 2.99) bPrimary schooling, ×parity, †preg. comps
Premature Rupture of Membrane 2.00 (1.21, 3.31) 1.26 (0.56, 2.83) ahaving comorbid conditions
Prolonged labour 2.10 (1.48, 2.96) 1.62 (0.95, 2.76) aANC Use, ×parity, †pregnancy comps.
Tear 1.01 (0.56, 1.83) 1.72 (0.82, 3.61) aMild Alcohol use, ×parity, †preg. comps.
Retained placenta (30 min) 1.66 (1.11, 2.49) 1.29 (0.69, 2.42) apregnancy comps.
One or more of any symptoms 2.12 (1.48, 3.04) 1.20 (0.71, 2.01) bparity, †pregnancy comps.
postnatal complications Haemorrhage 1.51 (1.11, 2.06) 1.98 (1.23, 3.20) bRural, †medium income, †primary schooling, †unwanted pregnancy, †history perinatal mortality
Edema 2.18 (1.23, 3.87) 3.03 (1.36, 6.75) aIntimate partner violence, †labour comps.
Blurred vision 1.72 (1.24, 2.39) 1.87 (1.15, 3.04) bRural, ×increased income and education, †mistimed pregnancy, †labour comps.
Convulsion 1.71 (1.22, 2.41) 1.59 (0.94, 2.68) bRural, ≥secondary schooling, †labour comp.
Severe headache 1.40 (1.01, 1.94) 2.95 (1.81, 4.78) bPrim schooling, †increased LTET, †labour comps
Unconsciousness 2.27 (1.10, 4.70) 2.98 (1.16, 7.64) aincreased LTET, †labour complications
Severe abdominal pain 1.54 (1.13, 2.11) 1.87 (1.16, 3.01) bAlcohol use, ×high income, †labour comps
Abnormal discharge 1.35 (0.92, 1.99) 1.59 (0.90, 2.80) alabour comps
Burning sensation at urination 1.20 (0.84, 1.71) 3.20 (1.97, 5.19) bhigher income, †secondary schooling, †labour comps
Fever 1.74 (1.24, 2.43) 2.45 (1.49, 4.02) Incm3-, increased labour comps
One or more of any symptoms 1.33 (0.94, 1.88) 4.16 (2.11, 8.20) bMild alcohol use, ×high income and education, ×use of ANC, †labour comps
neonatal complications Difficulty or Fast Breathing 1.67 (1.07, 2.60) 2.19 (1.18, 4.06) aIntimate partner violence
Yellow Skin/Eye Color (Jaundice) 1.34 (0.64, 2.79) 0.95 (0.30, 3.05) bIncreased parity, †unwanted pregnancy, † history perinatal mortality
Poor Sucking or Feeding 0.72 (0.32, 1.61) 1.38 (0.54, 3.53) aMild alcohol use
Pus, Bleeding, around Umbilical Cord 1.61 (1.08, 2.40) 1.66 (0.91, 3.01) bHigh income
Skin Lesions Or Blisters 1.38 (0.89, 2.15) 1.08 (0.53, 2.20) aComorbid conditions
Convulsions/Spasms/Rigidity 2.08 (1.33, 3.26) 1.79 (0.90, 3.53) a history perinatal mortality
Lethargy/Unconsciousness 1.19 (0.51, 2.78) 1.75 (0.59, 5.19)  
Red or Swollen Eyes With Pus 1.54 (1.14, 2.07) 1.52 (0.95, 2.43) bHigh income
Difficulty or Fast Breathing 1.67 (1.07, 2.60) 2.19 (1.18, 4.06) aintimate partner violence
  1. Reference group: women with minimal depression; a = risk factor; b = protective factor
  2. After controlling for alcohol use, residence, marital status, family income, educational level, intimate partner violence (IPV), life threatening events (LTET), parity, pregnancy intention, previous history of adverse events, pregnancy complications and chronic medical conditions.