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Table 1 Included papers

From: Barriers and facilitators in accessing dementia care by ethnic minority groups: a meta-synthesis of qualitative studies

Study ID no. Study Country
(urban/ rural)
Type (no.) participants Experience/type of dementia Ethnic group(s) Data collection method/ dates Method of analysis
1 Fox et al., 1999 [21] USA
(Urban)
Caregivers (10) Caregivers of elders with diagnosis of dementia. No indication of type or severity African American sub-sample from Levkoff et al. 1999 (below) Interviews
Dates not reported
Narrative review
2 Hicks & Lam, 1999 [22] USA
(Urban)
Caregivers (7) Caregivers of elders with diagnosis of dementia. No indication of type or severity Chinese American sub-sample from Levkoff et al. 1999 (below) Interviews
Dates not reported
Narrative review
3 Levkoff et al., 1999 [23] USA
(Urban)
Caregivers (40) Caregivers of elders with diagnosis of dementia. No indication of type or severity African American, Chinese American, Puerto Rican,Irish American Interviews
Dates not reported
Thematic analysis
4 Adamson, 2001 [24] UK (Urban) Caregivers (30) Caregivers of persons with symptoms of dementia. No indication of type or severity African/Caribbean, South Asian (Pakistan, India, East Africa) Interviews
Dates not reported
Constant comparative techniques of grounded theory
5 Karner & Hall, 2002 [25] USA
(Urban)
Service providers (42) na na Interviews
1999
Grounded theory
6 Bowes & Wilkinson, 2003 [26] UK (Urban) Patients /Caregivers (4)Service providers (11) Patients with diagnosis of dementia and their families/caregivers.
No indication of type or severity
South Asian Interviews& case studies
Dates not reported
Thematic analysis
7 Cloutterbuck & Mahoney, 2003 [27] USA
(Urban)
Caregivers (7) Family caregivers of elders with dementia.
No indication of type or severity.
African American Focus group
Dates not reported
Content analysis
9 St. John, 2004 [28] UK
(not specified)
Community members, carers and older people (no. not reported) Service providers and managers (no. not reported) No details on experience of dementia.
No indication of type or severity
nr Interviews & focus groups
2002–4
Content analysis categorised using a grounded theory approach
10 Beattie et al., 2005 [29] UK (rural and urban) Service managers & care staff (61) na na Interviews
2000–2
Comparative textual analysis
11 Neary & Mahoney, 2005 [30] USA
(not specified)
Caregivers (11) Current or recent experience of caring for a relative with dementia. 6 people were being cared for at home, 3 had moved to nursing homes.
No indication of type or severity.
Colombian, Puerto Rican, Argentinian, Guatemalan,Cuban, Dominican heritage. Interviews
Dates not reported
Ethnonursing data analysis
13 Jett, 2006 [31] USA
(Urban)
General population (14) Participants ‘knew someone with dementia’
No indication of type or severity.
African American Interviews
Dates not reported
Ethnographic approach using Grounded theory
14 Jones et al., 2006 [32] USA
(Urban)
General population (62) People with a range of knowledge and experience regarding Alzheimer’s Disease Japanese American, Korean American, Chinese American Focus groups
2001–2
content analysis
15 Mackenzie, 2006 [33] UK
(Urban)
Caregivers (20) Caregivers of relatives with dementia.
No indication of type or severity.
Pakistani, Indian, Polish, Ukrainian Interviews
2001–2
Content analysis
16 La Fontaine et al., 2007 [34] UK
(not specified)
General public (49) No details provided on experience or knowledge of dementia. Indian Focus groups
2001–3
Thematic analysis
17 Vickrey et al., 2007 [35] USA
(Urban)
Caregivers (47) Informal caregivers of people with dementia. Data on severity and duration of diagnosis for 44 participants 8 = mild, 18 = moderate, 18 = severe African American, Chinese American, Euro American, Hispanic American Focus groups
1998–9
Content analysis
18 Lawrence et al., 2008 [36] UK
(Urban)
Caregivers (32) Carers of people with dementia.
No indication of type or severity.
Black Caribbean, South Asian,
White British
Interviews
Dates not reported
Grounded theory
19 Morhardt et al., 2010 [37] USA
(Urban)
Caregivers (48) Carers of people with “Alzheimer’s Disease and related dementias”
No indication of type or severity.
Assyrian, Arab, Bosnian, Hindi,Urdu (language speakers) Interviews & observations
2005–8
Grounded theory
20 Boughtwood et al., 2011 [38] Australia
(not specified)
Multicultural community link workers (24) Extensive experience of and in-depth knowledge of family care-giving for dementia. na Interviews
Dates not reported
Thematic analysis
21 Lawrence et al., 2011 [39] UK
(Urban)
Older people with dementia (30) Dementia severity:
MMSE < 11 n = 8 (severe)
MMSE 11–20 n = 9 (moderate)
MMSE >20 n = 13 (mild)
Black Caribbean, South Asian, White British older people Interviews
Dates not reported
Grounded theory
22 Mukadam et al., 2011 [40] UK
(Urban)
Caregivers (18) “caring for people at different stages of dementia” no further details reported White British, South Asian, Black (African or Caribbean), White Irish, White Other, Asian Other, Chinese Interviews
Dates not reported
Thematic analysis
23 Koehn et al., 2012 [41] Canada
(not specified)
Caregivers (11) and people with dementia (10) dyads Patients with “probable ADRD”. Diagnoses made 1–4 years prior to interview Chinese-Canadian Interviews
2008
Critical-constructionist approach
24 Shanley et al., 2012 [42] Australia
(Urban)
Caregivers (121)Multicultural health workers (60) Family carers with recent experience of caring for a family member with dementia.
No indication of type or severity
Arabic, Chinese, Italian, Spanish (language speakers) Focus groups (carers) & interviews (health workers)
Dates not reported
Thematic analysis
25 Boughtwood et al., 2013 [43] Australia
(not specified)
Multicultural workers (24) Employed to promote access to dementia services in CALD communities. na Interviews
Dates not reported
Content and thematic analyses
26 Haralambous et al., 2014 [44] Australia
(not specified)
Caregivers (13)Community workers (11)Health professionals (39) Carers of people with dementia.
No indication of type or severity
Chinese, Vietnamese Interviews & focus groups
Dates not reported
Thematic analysis.
27 Uppal et al., 2014 [45] UK
(not specified)
General public (28) No information provided if caregivers or not.
No indication of type or severity
Sikh Focus groups
Dates not reported
Constant comparative methodology
28 Casado et al., 2015 [46] USA
(Urban)
Caregivers 23 Care-givers of people with dementia symptoms. No indication of type or severity Korean American Focus groups
Dates not reported
Thematic analysis
29 Jutlla, 2015 [47] UK
(Urban)
Carers (12) Carers of a family member with dementia.
No indication of type or severity
Sikh Interviews
Dates not reported
Constructivist grounded theory
30 Mukadam et al., 2015 [48] UK
(Urban)
General public (53) People without a known diagnosis of dementia, with or without experience of caring for people with dementia South Asian Focus groups & interviews
Dates not reported
Interpretative phenomenological analysis