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Table 2 Characteristics comparison between abstinent and relapsed patients from HRV-biofeedback and control groups

From: Effect of short-term heart rate variability biofeedback on long-term abstinence in alcohol dependent patients – a one-year follow-up

  HRV-biofeedback p-value Control p-value
Abstinent
(n=10)
Relapse
(n=5)
  Abstinent
(n=6)
Relapse
(n=6)
 
Demographic factors
 Age (years) 44.0±6.0 39.8±9,3 0.37 44.0±5.3 43.3±12.7 0.9
 Gender (%) 80 m, 20 f 40 m, 60 f 0.13 83.3 m, 16.7 f 83.3 m, 16.7 f 1.0
 Smoking (%) 80 80 1.0 83.3 66.7 0.5
Psychometric characteristics
 Craving at baseline 15.2±13.1 11.9±11.3 0.62 10.0±5.4 10.2±1.8 0.94
 Craving post-intervention 10.0±10.0 8.8±8.8 0.85 6.5±4.9 5.5±5.4 1.0
 Anxiety at baseline 6.0±3.8 6.2±5.2 0.94 5.8±5.2 3.2±3.2 0.31
 Anxiety post-intervention 4.0±3.7 5.1±7.3 1.0 3.8±2.9 3.2±3.9 0.58
 Depression at baseline 9.4±7.3 11.3±9.0 0.69 9.5±7.2 8.2±5.8 0.73
 Depression post-intervention 5.4±5.1 10.5±10.8 0.37 6.7±5.5 6.5±6.3 0.81
Heart rate variability
 CVNN at baseline (%) 3.5±1.1 5.1±2.1 0.15 3.6±0.7 4.9±1.6 0.11
 CVNN post-intervention (%) 4.5±1.21 5.5±1.7 0.27 3.5±1.3 5.4±2.7 0.16
 HF at baseline (ms2) 222.8±258.8 606.6±1331.2 0.2 193.1±182.5 310.4±312.3 0.81
 HF post-intervention (ms2) 93.4±101.5 405.9±400.9 0.07 86.2±42.3 1074.8±1589.1 0.31
 LF at baseline (ms2) 229.9±122.7 681.96±811.4 0.16 260.6±216.0 674.9±665.8 0.18
 LF post-intervention (ms2) 546.5±409.5 615.82±573.9 0.85 343.9±317.2 1246.2±2444.4 0.81
 TP at baseline (ms2) 915.8±659.7 2332.2±2475.8 0.16 1255.3±1331.8 1425.4±1248.9 1.0
 TP post-intervention (ms2) 1138.3±597.7 1945.7±1773.6 0.44 713.9±539.3 2480.8±4048.6 0.39
  1. Analyses revealed no differences between abstinent patients and those who had relapse in any of the included demographic, psychometric or HRV parameters. Among patients who completed follow-up, this was true both in between patients who have undergone HRV-biofeedback one year earlier and those who have received rehabilitation only. “Craving” refers to the Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale score. “Anxiety” and “Depression” refer to scores of subscales Anxiety and Depression from the Symptom Checklist-90
  2. CVNN coefficient of variation of R-R intervals, HF high frequency, LF low frequency, TP total power