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Table 1 Signs and symptoms of psychomotor agitation [2]

From: Protocol for the management of psychiatric patients with psychomotor agitation

Type Signs and Symptoms
Changes in behaviour • Combative attitude
• Inappropriate behaviour without clear purpose
• Hyperreactivity to stimuli
• Inability to remain quiet, seated or calm
• Exaggerated gesticulation
• Facial tension and angry expression
• Defiant and/or prolonged visual contact
• Raised tone of voice, silence or refusal to communicate
• Altered emotional state with appearance of anxiety, irritability or hostility
• Verbal and/or physical aggression against self or others or objects
Cognitive changes • Fluctuations in the levels of consciousness
• Temporo-spatial disorientations
• Tendency to frustration
• Difficulty in anticipating consequences
• Delusional ideas and/or hallucinations
Change in physical parameters • Fever
• Tachycardia
• Tachypnoea
• Sweating
• Tremor
• Neurological signs such as difficulty walking