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Table 3 Pharmacological treatment options for the patient presenting with psychomotor agitation [21]

From: Protocol for the management of psychiatric patients with psychomotor agitation

Route of administration Agent Dose Cause of agitation
Antipsychotics
 Inhaled Loxapine 9.1 mg Psychotic syndrome (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder)
 Oral Olanzapine 5–10 mg Undifferentiated agitation
Medical illness (cognitive deterioration and confusion syndrome)
Substance intoxication/abstinence
Psychiatric illness (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, mental retardation and autism spectrum disorder)
Risperidone 1–3 mg
Asenapine 5–10 mg
Aripiprazole 15–30 mg
Quetiapine 50–100 mg
Ziprasidone 20–40 mg
Haloperidol 5 mg
 Intramuscular Haloperidol 5–15 mg
Olanazapine 5–10 mg
Ziprasidone 10 mg
Aripiprazole 9.75 mg
Levomepromazine 25 mg
Benzodiazepines
 Oral Diazepam 5–10 mg Abstinence from alcohol and/or BZD
Psychiatric illness (anxiety disorder, affective disorder, personality and adjustment disorder)
Clonazepam 1–2 mg
Lorazepam 1 mg
 Intramuscular Midazolam 5 mg
Diazepam 5–10 mg
  1. BZD, benzodiazepine