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Table 2 Characteristics of the study sample at baseline (N = 76)

From: Cognitive behavioral group therapy for patients with physical diseases and comorbid depressive or adjustment disorders on a waiting list for individual therapy: results from a randomized controlled trial

   STEpS CGa Total t/χ2 p
(n = 38) (n = 38) (N = 76)
Gender Male 10 (26.3%) 13 (34.2%) 23 (30.3%) χ2(1) = .561 .454
Female 28 (73.7%) 25 (65.8%) 53 (69.7%)
Age Mean in years
(standard deviation)
55.4 (14.1) 53.6 (12.3) 54.5 (13.2) t(74) = .615 .540
Family status Single 5 (13.2%) 7 (18.4%) 12 (15.8%) χ2(1) = 1.363 .506
Divorced, separated or widowed 8 (21.1%) 11 (28.9%) 19 (25.0%)
Married or in relationship 25 (65.8%) 20 (52.6%) 45 (59.2%)
Duration of school education Mean in years
(standard deviation)
10.7 (1.4) 10.6 (1.7) 10.6 (1.6) t(70) = .095 .925
Did not finish school 2 (5.3%) 1 (2.6%) 3 (3.9%)
Still in school 1 (2.6%) 0 (0%) 1 (1.3%)
Employment status Employed full time 7 (18.4%) 9 (23.7%) 16 (21.1%) Fisher’s exact test .994
Employed part time 10 (26.3%) 9 (23.7%) 19 (25.0%)
In training 1 (2.6%) 1 (2.6%) 2 (2.6%)
Unemployed 1 (2.6%) 1 (2.6%) 2 (2.6%)
On sick leave 7 (18.4%) 6 (15.8%) 13 (17.1%)
Retired 11 (28.9%) 11 (28.9%) 22 (28.9%)
Housekeeping 1 (2.6%) 1 (2.6%) 2 (2.6%)
Physical diagnosisb (multiple answers possible) Musculoskeletal system and connective tissue 16 (42.1%) 17 (44.7%) 33 (43.4%) Fisher’s exact test .129
Neoplasms 11 (28.9%) 8 (21.1%) 19 (25.0%)
Nervous system 11 (28.9%) 7 (18.4%) 18 (23.7%)
Circulatory system 7 (18.4%) 7 (18.4%) 14 (18.4%)
Endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases 0 (0%) 8 (21.1%) 8 (10.5%)
Skin and subcutaneous tissue 3 (7.9%) 2 (5.3%) 5 (6.6%)
Digestive system 3 (7.9%) 1 (2.6%) 4 (5.3%)
Respiratory system 2 (5.3%) 1 (2.6%) 3 (3.9%)
Eye and adnexa 2 (5.3%) 1 (2.6%) 3 (3.9%)
Genitourinary system 1 (2.6%) 2 (5.3%) 3 (3.9%)
Injuries, poisoning and external causes 0 (0%) 2 (5.3%) 2 (2.6%)
More than one diagnosis 13 (34.2%) 14 (36.8%) 27 (35.5%)   
Diagnosis (SCID-I)c Depressive episode 27 (71.1%) 27 (71.1%) 54 (71.1%) Fisher’s exact test .195
Mild 11 (28.9%) 4 (10.5%) 15 (19.7%)
Moderate 10 (26.3%) 12 (31.6%) 22 (28.9%)
Severe 0 (0%) 2 (5.3%) 2 (2.6%)
In partial remission 6 (15.8%) 9 (23.7%) 15 (19.7%)
Adjustment disorder with depressed mood or with mixed anxiety and depressed mood 5 (13.2%) 8 (21.1%) 13 (17.1%)
Dysthymic disorder 4 (10.5%) 3 (7.9%) 7 (9.2%)
Others 2 (5.3%) 0 (0%) 2 (2.6%)
More than one diagnosis 14 (36.8%) 19 (50.0%) 33 (43.4%)   
Previous treatment Under Medicationd 15 (39.5%) 15 (39.5%) 30 (39.5%) Fisher’s exact test .450
Previous psychotherapye 22 (57.9%) 19 (50.0%) 41 (53.9%) Fisher’s exact test .349
Admission to clinic Newspaper announcement 18 (47.4%) 17 (44.7%) 35 (46.1%) χ2(1) = .053 .818
Self-referral 20 (52.6%) 21 (55.3%) 41 (53.9%)
  1. Notes:
  2. aCG = control group
  3. bcategories according to International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10)
  4. cSCID-I = Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV
  5. dMedication of n = 5 patients is unknown
  6. ePrevious psychotherapy of n = 4 patients is unknown