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Table 2 Univariate analysis of the factors associated with smartphone addiction between the two genders [n(%)]

From: Gender differences in factors associated with smartphone addiction: a cross-sectional study among medical college students

  Males Females
Smartphone addiction positive Smartphone addiction negative OR (95% CI) p Smartphone addiction positive Smartphone addiction negative OR (95% CI) p
Age (years)
 ≤ 19 80(26.1) 226(73.9) Ref.   92(25.7) 266(74.3) Ref.  
 ≥ 20 131(33.6) 259(66.4) 1.43 (1.03-1.99) .034 126(32.6) 261(67.4) 1.40 (1.02-1.92) .040
Residential source
 Rural 141(30.1) 328(69.9) Ref.   127(27.7) 332(72.3) Ref.  
 Urban 70(30.8) 157(69.2) 1.04 (0.74-1.46) .835 91(31.8) 195(68.2) 1.22 (0.88-1.68) .226
Monthly cost for living
 ≤ 800 RMB 60(28.3) 152(71.7) Ref.   74(26.2) 208(73.8) Ref.  
 800–1200 RBM 109(29.4) 262(70.6) 1.05 (0.73-1.53) .783 96(28.0) 247(72.0) 1.09 (0.77-1.56) .625
 ≥ 1200 RMB 42(37.2) 71(62.8) 1.50 (0.92-2.43) .101 48(40.0) 72(60.0) 1.87 (1.19-2.94) .006
Phone calls/Text message
 Not main function 144(31.2) 317(68.8) Ref.   163(34.3) 312(65.7) Ref.  
 Main function 67(28.5) 168(71.5) 0.88 (0.62-1.24) .459 55(20.4) 215(79.6) 0.49 (0.35-0.70) .000
Smartphone gaming
 Not main function 188(29.1) 459(70.9) Ref.   216(29.4) 518(70.6) Ref.  
 Main function 23(46.9) 26(53.1) 2.16 (1.20-3.88) .009 2(18.2) 9(81.8) 0.53 (0.11-2.49) .631
Multimedia applications (Watching videos/Listening to music)
 Not main function 189(32.1) 399(67.9) Ref.   174(27.9) 449(72.1) Ref.  
 Main function 22(20.4) 86(79.6) 0.54 (0.33-0.89) .014 44(36.1) 78(63.9) 1.46 (0.97-2.19) .071
Social networking services
 Not main function 139(28.5) 349(71.5) Ref.   109(23.2) 361(76.8) Ref.  
 Main function 72(34.6) 136(65.4) 1.33 (0.94-1.88) .107 109(39.6) 166(60.4) 2.18 (1.58-3.00) .000
Internet surfing/reading
 Not main function 198(31.0) 441(69.0) Ref.   211(29.7) 499(70.3) Ref.  
 Main function 13(22.8) 44(77.2) 0.66 (0.35-1.25) .198 7(20.0) 28(80.0) 0.59 (0.25-1.38) .217
Others
 Not main function 200(30.4) 457(69.6) Ref.   211(29.6) 502(70.4) Ref.  
 Main function 11(28.2) 28(71.8) 0.90 (0.44-1.84) .768 7(21.9) 25(78.1) 0.67 (0.28-1.56) .348
Sleep quality
 Good sleep quality 98(21.0) 369(79.0) Ref.   98(21.2) 364(78.8) Ref.  
 Poor sleep quality 113(49.3) 116(50.7) 3.67 (2.61-5.16) .000 120(42.4) 163(57.6) 2.73 (1.98-3.78) .000
Anxiety
 Negative 165(27.2) 442(72.8) Ref.   187(26.9) 507(73.1) Ref.  
 Positive 46(51.7) 43(48.3) 2.87 (1.82-4.51) .000 31(60.8) 20(39.2) 4.20 (2.34-7.56) .000
Depressive
 Negative 127(25.3) 374(74.7) Ref.   142(24.7) 433(75.3) Ref.  
 Positive 84(43.1) 111(56.9) 2.23 (1.57-3.16) .000 76(44.7) 94(55.3) 2.47 (1.73-3.52) .000