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Table 1 Selected Baseline Characteristics by Treatment Status at Enrollment, REACH-OUT (2010–2013)

From: Comparison and predictors of treatment adherence and remission among patients with schizophrenia treated with paliperidone palmitate or atypical oral antipsychotics in community behavioral health organizations

Variable PP-All N = 482 PP-C N = 308 PP-N N = 174 OAT N = 281 P Value, PP-All vs OAT P Value, PP-N vs OAT
Age (Mean ± SD) 41.12 ± 12.6 42.0 ± 12.7 39.6 ± 12.2 42.1 ± 13.4 0.440 0.069
Male 344 (71%) 219 (72%) 125 (74%) 181 (66%) 0.046 0.074
Race      0.727 0.081
 White 239 (50%) 170 (57%) 69 (42%) 133 (49%)   
 Black/African American 153 (32%) 80 (27%) 73 (44%) 90 (33%)   
 Multiracial/other 73 (15%) 49 (16%) 24 (14%) 48 (18%)   
Ethnicity: Hispanic 65 (13%) 43 (14%) 22 (14%) 72 (26%) <0.001 0.002
Married/committed 40 (8%) 29 (10%) 11 (7%) 35 (13%) 0.077 0.053
Medicare 238 (49%) 164 (55%) 74 (45%) 100 (38%) <0.001 0.130
Medicaid 352 (73%) 236 (79%) 116 (70%) 169 (63%) <0.001 0.119
Private residence 326 (68%) 213 (70%) 113 (67%) 212 (78%) 0.002 0.015
Lung condition 48 (10%) 28 (9%) 20 (12%) 15 (5%) 0.029 0.018
Smoking 346 (72%) 226 (74%) 120 (70%) 179 (64%) 0.015 0.183
Alcohol abuse 106 (22%) 73 (24%) 33 (19%) 47 (17%) 0.075 0.526
Substance abuse 114 (24%) 80 (26%) 34 (20%) 75 (27%) 0.386 0.113
Duration of schizophrenia in years (mean ± SD) 15.7 ± 12.9 16.5 ± 13.0 14.4 ± 12.5 13.9 ± 13.5 0.014 0.340
Paranoid schizophrenia 323 (67%) 203 (66%) 120 (69%) 178 (63%) 0.306 0.226
Schizophrenia severity      <0.001 <0.001
 Chronic 169 (35%) 108 (36%) 61 (36%) 72 (26%)   
 Subchronic 118 (24%) 68 (23%) 50 (30%) 61 (22%)   
 Other/unspecified 180 (38%) 123 (41%) 57 (34%) 148 (53%)   
  1. Notes: (1) Percentage missing: age, 2%; gender, 2%; race, 4%; Hispanic ethnicity, 3%; marital status, 2%; Medicare, 4%; Medicaid, 4%; living situation, 2%; lung condition,<1%; smoking, <1%; alcohol, 1%; substance abuse, <1%; schizophrenia duration, 4%; schizophrenia severity, 2%
  2. (2) Percentages reported are among the nonmissing
  3. Abbreviations: OAT oral antipsychotic therapy, PP paliperidone palmitate, PP-C continuous user of paliperidone palmitate, PP-N new user of paliperidone palmitate, OAT oral antipsychotic therapy, SD standard deviation