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Table 4 The influence of frequency of religious service attendance on the intercept and slope of problem gambling severity, by gender (n = 3959)

From: The protective role of religiosity against problem gambling: findings from a five-year prospective study

  Males (n = 1764) Females (n = 2195)
  Intercept Slope Intercept Slope
  Effect p Effect p Effect p Effect p
Frequency of service attendancea
 Not at all (ref.)
 Low 0.10 0.11 −0.16 0.15 0.03 0.57 0.04 0.68
 Moderate −0.07 0.48 −0.005 0.98 −0.16 0.04 0.06 0.68
 High −0.54 <0.001 −0.25 0.10 −0.68 <0.001 0.24 0.10
Religious affiliationb
 Atheist/Agnostic (ref.)
 Catholic 0.22 0.11 0.01 0.96 0.30 0.03 −0.09 0.74
 Protestant 0.06 0.66 −0.08 0.73 0.18 0.17 −0.01 0.98
 Other −0.10 0.50 0.02 0.93 −0.13 0.41 −0.01 0.97
 Prefer not to say 0.21 0.19 −0.38 0.19 0.16 0.29 −0.13 0.66
Age −0.004 0.04 0.01 0.01 0.003 0.17 0.006 0.10
Education −0.12 <0.001 0.02 0.67 −0.14 <0.001 0.05 0.25
Household income 0.07 0.08 −0.04 0.60 0.02 0.465 0.10 0.12
Marital status
 Never married (ref.)
 Married or common law −0.34 <0.001 0.36 0.03 −0.20 0.02 0.42 0.01
 Divorced or separated or widowed −0.11 0.33 0.06 0.78 −0.19 0.05 0.45 0.01
  1. Standardized estimates used for regression coefficients
  2. a Low = categories “once” and “2 to 5 times” in the past year; Moderate = categories “6 to 10 times” and “once or twice a month”; High: categories “once a week” and “more than once a week”
  3. b See Additional file 1: Table S1 for contrasts between all levels of religious affiliation