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Table 1 Characteristics of the individual studies included in this systematic review and meta-analysis

From: Is meat consumption associated with depression? A meta-analysis of observational studies

First author year of publication Location Age years Male (%) Sample Size Study design Exposure definition OR or RR for depression (95%CI) Adjustments Assessment of Depression
Chen 2005 [16] China ≥60 47.1 1600 Cross-sectional Never 1.00 Gender, current family income, watching television, relationships with neighbors, living with whom, self-assessed physical, health status, hypertension, adverse life events occurring in the past 2 years Geriatric Mental State and the Automated Geriatric Examination for Computer Assisted Taxonomy
< 1 servings/week 1.76 (0.96–3.22)
≥1 servings/week 0.80 (0.30–2.11)
Sanchez-Villegas 2009 [17] Spain 37.2 41.6 10,094 Cohort Quintile 1 1.00 Gender, age, smoking status, body mass index, physical activity during leisure time, energy intake and employment status. A self-reported physician-made diagnosis of depression
Quintile 2 0.92 (0.67–1.26)
Quintile 3 0.98 (0.72–1.32)
Quintile 4 1.14 (0.84–1.53)
Quintile 5 1.35 (1.01–1.80)
Tsai 2011 [18] Taiwan ≥65 57.6 1609 Cohort < 3 servings/week 1.00 Age, gender, years of formal education, satisfaction with economic status, living setting, smoking status, alcohol drinking, betel-nut chewing, functional status, physical activity, cognitive status (SPMSQ score) and the presence of major chronic co-morbidities (hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, cancer, stroke, chronic kidney disease, gout, joint pain/arthritis, gallbladder/liver disease, hip fracture and lower-back pain) Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Rating Scale (Score ≥ 10)
≥ 3 servings/week 1.31 (0.90–1.91)
Park 2012 [19] Korea 44.85 ± 1.77 33.3 166 Case-control ≤0.93 servings/week 1.00 Drinking, marital status, sleeping hours, education, job and energy except for energy intake Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (Scores ≥25)
43.47 ± 1.43
0.93–2.44 servings/week 1.18 (0.43–3.20)
2.44–3.61 servings/week 1.17 (0.38–3.66)
>3.61 servings/week 4.39 (1.25–15.38)
Miyake 2013 [21] Japan 31.2 ± 4.3 0 1745 Cross-sectional Quintile 1 1.00 Age, gestation, region of residence, number of children, family structure, history of depression, family history of depression, smoking, secondhand smoke exposure at home and at work, job type, household income, education and body mass index. Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (Scores ≥16)
Quintile 2 0.67 (0.47–0.96)
Quintile 3 1.06 (0.75–1.49)
Quintile 4 0.90 (0.64–1.28)
Rienks 2013 [20] Australia 50–55 0 8369 Cohort Never, ever OR Energy, smoking, physical activity, ability to manage on available income, occupation status, education level, marital status, mean stress score and body mass index. Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (Scores ≥10)
1.00
1.06 (0.99–1.13)
Never, ever RR
1.00
1.09 (0.98–1.21)
Zhou 2014 [22] China ≥65 46.4 11,473 Cross-sectional Rarely 1.00 Not mentioned Patient Health Questionnaire-9; (Scores ≥10)
< 250 g/week 0.61 (0.47–0.78)
250–500 g/week 0.41 (0.32–0.52)
≥ 500 g/week 0.61 (0.47–0.78)
Kim 2015 [23] Korea 12–18 0 849 Case-control ≤2.6 servings/week 1.00 Energy intake Beck Depression Inventory (Scores ≥16)
2.6–6.8 servings/week 0.82 (0.50–1.34)
>6.8 servings/week 0.70 (0.41–1.21)