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Table 1 Item mapping for the alternative latent structure models

From: The German version of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5): psychometric properties and diagnostic utility

  DSM-5 model Dysphoria model Dysphoric Arousal model Anhedonia model Externalizing behavior model Hybrid model Three-Factor model
1. Intrusive thoughts R R R R R R Factor 1
2. Nightmares R R R R R R Factor 1
3. Flashbacks R R R R R R Factor 1
4. Emotional cue reactivity R R R R R R Factor 1
5. Physical cue reactivity R R R R R R Factor 1
6. Avoidance of thoughts A A A A A A Factor 1
7. Avoidance of reminders A A A A A A Factor 1
8. Trauma-related amnesia NACM D NACM NACM NACM NA Factor 3
9. Negative beliefs NACM D NACM NACM NACM NA Factor 3
10. Distorted blame NACM D NACM NACM NACM NA Factor 3
11. Persistent negative emotional state NACM D NACM NACM NACM NA Factor 3
12. Lack of interest NACM D NACM AN NACM AN Factor 2
13. Feeling detached NACM D NACM AN NACM AN Factor 2
14. Inability to experience positive emotions NACM D NACM AN NACM AN Factor 2
15. Irritable/ angry AR D DA DA EB EB Factor 2
16. Recklessness AR AR DA DA EB EB Factor 2
17. Hypervigilance AR AR AA AA AA AA Factor 1
18. Exaggerated state AR AR AA AA AA AA Factor 1
19. Difficulty concentrating AR D DA DA DA DA Factor 1
20. Sleep disturbance AR D DA DA DA DA Factor 1
  1. Note: R re-experiencing, A avoidance, NACM negative alterations in cognitions and mood, AR alterations in arousal and reactivity, AN anhedonia, DA dysphoric arousal, AA anxious arousal, NA negative affect, EB externalizing behaviour