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Table 5 Comparison between Malay version of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS-M) factor scores and sociodemographic and psychiatric history variables

From: Cultural adaptation and validity of the Malay version of the brief psychiatric rating scale (BPRS-M) among patients with schizophrenia in a psychiatric clinic

  BPRS-M Factor scores
  Positive Symptoms a Mood disturbance a Negative Symptoms a Activation a Resistance b Somatization b Orientation b Total a
Gender t = −0.73 t = 1.67 t = −2.56 t = −1.74 Z = −0.71 Z = −1.02 Z = −0.86 t = −0.73
 Male 6.76(4.84) 2.83(2.88) 5.83 (3.03) 2.69(1.20) * 0.74(51.99) 0.52 (52.14) 0 16.69(8.09)
 Female 6.05(4.70) 3.84(3.03) 4.47(2.26) 2.26(1.22) 0.74 (48.54) 0.26 (48.42) 0.02(50.37) 15.49(8.06)
Ethnicity t = 0.48 t = −0.96 t = 1.22 t = 1.05 Z = −0.16 Z = −0.40 Z = −1.63 t = 0.30
 Chinese 6.55(4.72) 3.16(2.92) 5.34(2.97) 2.55(1.35) 0.75(49.66) 0.30(49.38) 0.02(49.50) 16.21(8.17)
 non- Chinese 6.09(4.82) 3.74(3.09) 4.67(2.23) 2.30(1.04) 0.72(50.44) 0.47(50.81) 0 15.72(8.00)
Marital Status t = −0.96 t = −0.33 t = −0.10 t = 0.53 Z = −0.09 Z = −0.57 Z = −1.63 t = −0.99
 Married 6.15(4.49) 3.22(2.87) 5.15 (1.92) 2.40(1.33) 0.63 (49.65) 0.37(48.33) 0 15.48(7.51)
 non-married 6.43(4.87) 3.49(3.06) 5.01(2.93) 2.56(0.89) 0.78(50.13) 0.38(50.63) 0.01(51.33) 16.19(8.29)
Education t = −1.96 t = −0.90 t = −4.61 t = −3.46 Z = −1.74 Z = −0.08 Z = −0.59 t = −3.11
  ≤ Secondary 6.90(4.65) 3.58(3.02) 5.73(2.43) ** 2.68(1.07) ** 0.84(52.51) 0.41(50.08) 0.01(50.18) 17.44(7.74)**
  ≥ Tertiary 4.81(4.77) 2.96(2.95) 3.15(2.49) 1.77(1.39) 0.46(42.96) 0.27(49.77) 0 11.96(7.67)
Employed t = −2.38 t = 0.83 t = −1.86 t = −2.17 Z = −1.15 Z = −0.54 Z = −0.47 t = −2.04
 Yes 4.00(4.17) * 3.94(3.02) 4.00 (2.17) * 1.89(0.90) * 0.44(44.11) 0.28(47.94) 0 12.56(7.96)*
 No 6.88(4.73) 3.30(3.00) 5.28(2.74) 2.57(1.25) 0.80(51.31) 0.40(50.46) 0.01(49.50) 16.77(7.92)
Family history of mental illness t = 1.30 t = −0.15 t = 0.10 t = −0.36 Z = −0.60 Z = −0.99 Z = −1.38 t = 0.87
 Yes 7.21(4.29) 3.35(2.92) 5.09(2.94) 2.38(1.28) 0.85(52.00) 0.41()52.46 0.03 (50.96) 16.97(7.15)
 No 5.91(4.94) 3.45(3.06) 5.03(2.57) 2.48(1.20) 0.68(48.95) 0.35()48.72 0 15.49(8.50)
  1. Significant when p < 0.05*, p < 0.01**
  2. amean (standard deviation), Independent t-test
  3. bmean (mean rank), Mann-Whitney test