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Table 2 Comparison between NLBC and LBC regarding depressive symptoms and NLES (N = 6227)

From: Depressive symptoms and negative life events: What psycho-social factors protect or harm left-behind children in China?

Instrumental values Fa Partial η 2 Mean (SD)
NLBC LBC
(n = 2046) (n = 4181)
Overall MANCOVA Test     
Wilks’ Lambda = 0. 98 13.77*** 0.17   
Univariate ANCOVA Tests     
Depressive symptoms 5.93*** 0.001 13.61(6.18) 14.27(6.35)
Total NLES 37.26*** 0.006 42.14(25.16) 47.28(24.50)
Interpersonal conflict 28.81*** 0.005 9.80(4.95) 10.17(4.97)
Academic pressure 33.94*** 0.005 9.36(5.00) 9.92(5.06)
Punishment 17.49*** 0.003 10.51(7.48) 11.02(7.80)
Loss 10.46*** 0.002 5.55(4.58) 5.81(4.56)
Health and adaptation problem 84.22*** 0.013 6.10(4.25) 6.72(4.15)
Other negative events 8.70*** 0.001 5.05(4.16) 5.26(4.33)
  1. Note: The dependent variables were depressive symptom, total NLES, stress induced by interpersonal conflict, academic pressure, punishment, loss, health and adaptation problem, and other types of negative events
  2. NLBC non-left-behind children, LBC left-behind rural children, MANCOVA multiple analysis of covariance, ANCOVA analysis of covariance, NLES negative-life-event-induced stress, SD standard deviation
  3. *** p < 0.001
  4. aF value was from MANCOVA and ANCOVA results, adjusted for age, ethnicity, home place, parental marriage status, only child in family, studying at boarding school and family income