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Table 5 ANOVAs on depressive symptoms of LBC using NLES and left-behind-related variables as factors (N = 4181)

From: Depressive symptoms and negative life events: What psycho-social factors protect or harm left-behind children in China?

Independent variables df MS Fa Partial η 2
Age at separationb × NLES level (N) 6 40.40 1.15 0.002
Duration of separationc × N 9 70.23 2.00 0.004
Com. durationd × N 9 158.84 4.53*** 0.010
Com. frequencye × N 12 171.35 4.89*** 0.014
Com. by telephonef × N 3 53.74 1.53 0.001
Com. by visitingf × N 3 162.82 4.65** 0.003
Com. by messagef × N 3 16.21 0.46 0.000
Com. on academic performancef × N 3 438.55 12.52*** 0.009
Com. on school lifef × N 3 28.17 0.80 0.001
Com. on life difficultiesf × N 3 273.22 7.80*** 0.006
Com. on learning difficultiesf × N 3 67.58 1.93 0.001
Com. on migrant parental lifef × N 3 42.18 1.20 0.001
Com. on children’s feelingsf × N 3 207.89 5.93*** 0.004
Error 4115 35.04   
  1. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001
  2. aF value was from factorial ANOVA results
  3. bFor the variable age at separation, 1 = 0–5 years old, 2 = 6–12 years old, 3 = 13–17 years old
  4. cFor the variable duration of separation, 1 = 6 months – 2 years, 2 = 2–3 years, 3 = 4–5 years, 5 = over 6 years
  5. dFor the variable communication duration, 1 = within 5 min, 2 = 5–10 min, 3 = 10–30 min, 4 = over 30 min
  6. eFor the variable communication frequency, 1 = daily, 2 = weekly, 3 = monthly, 4 = half a year, 5 = over half a year
  7. fFor the variables on communication methods and topics, yes = 1 and no = 0