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Table 6 Comparison between depressive symptoms of LBC having a low, median and high level of NLES at different levels of demographic and left-behind-related variables (N = 4181)

From: Depressive symptoms and negative life events: What psycho-social factors protect or harm left-behind children in China?

Variables NLES Fa Partial η 2
Low Median High
M (SD) M (SD) M (SD)
Com. duration
 (1) Within 5 min 11.99(5.42) 15.77(6.47) 17.57(6.33) 32.72*** 0.079
 (2) 5–10 min 11.41(5.66) 13.94(5.93) 17.27(6.44) 63.07*** 0.097
 (3) 10–30 min 10.65(5.30) 14.09(5.92) 16.06(6.51) 79.88*** 0.086
 (4) Over 30 min 10.83(5.07) 13.84(6.18) 16.31(6.05) 30.15*** 0.107
Fa 0.91 3.35* 1.35   
Partial η 2 0.003 0.005 0.004   
Com. frequency
 (1) Daily 10.63(5.24) 13.29(5.83) 14.66(6.15) 14.86*** 0.060
 (2) Weekly 11.03(5.42) 14.04(6.07) 16.57(6.21) 118.22*** 0.088
 (3) Monthly 10.51(5.06) 15.02(6.25) 17.12(6.86) 50.01*** 0.121
 (4) Half a year 13.70(0.78) 15.60(0.49) 17.80(0.59) 9.07*** 0.056
 (5) Over half a year 13.51(1.08) 16.14(0.63) 18.13(0.78) 6.06*** 0.060
Fa 3.69** 4.32 1.13   
Partial η 2 0.017 0.009 0.004   
Com. by visiting
 (1) Yes 9.08(4.76) 15.88(6.13) 16.89(6.94) 20.45*** 0.205
 (2) No 11.22(5.28) 14.48(6.07) 16.85(6.53)   
tb −2.40* 2.44* 0.17   
r −0.21 0.11 0.01   
Com. on academic performance
 (1) Yes 11.10(5.30) 13.89(5.94) 16.25(6.22) 111.39*** 0.080
 (2) No 11.20(5.63) 15.04(6.26) 17.33(6.64)   
tb −0.26 −4.22*** −2.84**   
r −0.01 −0.09 −0.08   
Com. on life difficulties
 (1) Yes 11.26(5.52) 14.50(6.12) 16.88(6.40) 148.67*** 0.088
 (2) No 10.88(5.16) 13.81(5.97) 16.09(6.46)   
tb 0.99 2.24* 1.75   
r 0.04 0.06 0.06   
Com. on children’s feelings
 (1) Yes 10.47(5.34) 13.98(6.12) 16.33(6.52) 100.52*** 0.110
 (2) No 11.63(5.41) 14.53(6.06) 16.95(6.35)   
tb −3.28** −2.00* −1.60   
r −0.11 −0.05 −0.05   
  1. Note: The dependent variable was depressive symptom
  2. NLES negative-life-event-induced stress, M mean, SD standard deviation, Com. communication between migrant parents and left-behind children
  3. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01,*** p < 0.001
  4. aF value was from ANOVA results
  5. bt value was from independent T-test result