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Table 7 ANOVAs on depressive symptoms of LBC using type of parental migration and left-behind-related variables as factors (N = 4181)

From: Depressive symptoms and negative life events: What psycho-social factors protect or harm left-behind children in China?

Independent variables df MS Fa Partial η 2
Age at separationb × Type of parental migrationc (T) 6 80.37 2.10 0.003
Duration of separationd × T 9 78.85 2.06* 0.004
Com. duratione × T 9 187.92 4.91*** 0.011
Com. frequencyf × T 12 210.40 5.50*** 0.016
Com. by telephoneg × T 3 26.36 0.69 0.001
Com. by visitingg × T 3 46.96 1.23 0.001
Com. by messageg × T 3 74.94 1.96 0.001
Com. on academic performanceg × T 3 633.53 16.55*** 0.012
Com. on school lifeg × T 3 55.82 1.46 0.001
Com. on life difficultiesg × T 1 50.41 1.32 0.000
Com. on learning difficultiesg × T 3 145.05 3.79*** 0.003
Com. on migrant parental lifeg × T 3 35.85 0.94 0.001
Com. on children’s feelingsg × T 3 365.58 9.55*** 0.007
Error 4117 38.28   
  1. Note: The dependent variable was depressive symptom
  2. Com. communication between migrant parents and left-behind children, MS mean square
  3. * p < 0.05, *** p < 0.001
  4. aF value was from factorial ANOVA results
  5. bFor the variable age at separation, 1 = 0–5 years old, 2 = 6–12 years old, 3 = 13–17 years old
  6. cFor the variable type of parental migration, 1 = migrant father, 2 = migrant mother, 3 = migrant parents
  7. dFor the variable duration of separation, 1 = 6 months – 2 years, 2 = 2–3 years, 3 = 4–5 years, 5 = over 6 years
  8. eFor the variable communication duration, 1 = within 5 min, 2 = 5–10 min, 3 = 10–30 min, 4 = over 30 min
  9. fFor the variable communication frequency, 1 = daily, 2 = weekly, 3 = monthly, 4 = half a year, 5 = over half a year
  10. gFor the variables on communication methods and topics, yes = 1 and no = 0