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Table 3 The differences in the Doctor Job Stress Scale, psychosocial stress (BEPSI-K), sleep quality (PSQI), depression (CES-D), and anxiety scale (STAI-S) according to Sociodemographic characteristics

From: Correlation of occupational stress with depression, anxiety, and sleep in Korean dentists: cross-sectional study

Variables Doctor job stress Psychosocial stress
(BEPSI-K)
Sleep quality
(PSQI)
Depression scale
(CES-D)
Anxiety scale
(STAI-S)
Mean SD p-value Mean SD p-value Mean SD p-value Mean SD p-value Mean SD p-value
Sex    0.4637    0.4004    0.5297    0.9048    0.9129
 Male 3.24 0.51   2.04 0.56   5.34 2.89   15.64 9.81   43.01 10.20  
 Female 3.19 0.59   2.02 0.59   5.08 3.11   15.47 9.51   43.16 9.84  
Socioeconomic status    0.2882    0.0018 †*    0.3047    < 0.0001 †*    < 0.0001 †*
 High 3.26 0.58   1.86 0.52   4.85 2.64   11.69 9.12   38.49 8.24  
 Middle 3.21 0.53   2.08 0.56   5.37 3.03   16.59 9.20   44.22 9.78  
 Low 3.44 0.21   2.64 0.62   6.60 3.91   27.80 15.24   58.20 15.01  
Income    0.3765    0.0004 †*    0.0655*    < 0.0001 †*    < 0.0001 †*
 High 3.20 0.51   1.88 0.53   5.03 2.86   12.25 8.69   39.89 8.40  
 Middle 3.21 0.57   2.05 0.56   5.07 2.93   16.28 9.73   43.46 10.31  
 Low 3.33 0.49   2.31 0.56   6.25 3.11   20.33 9.33   48.28 10.29  
Exercise frequency    0.9608    0.8905    0.6094    0.4523    0.6533
 No exercise 3.24 0.52   3.20 0.59   4.82 2.51   15.62 9.00   43.67 9.27  
 1–2 times/week 3.23 0.53   3.28 0.62   5.43 2.80   15.63 9.70   43.20 9.88  
 3–4 times/week 3.21 0.61   3.25 0.59   5.37 3.63   14.65 9.96   41.67 11.13  
  ≥ 5 times/week 3.14 0.36   3.23 0.59   5.50 3.70   20.63 13.03   45.38 12.22  
Alcohol drinking    0.5327    0.3609    0.0187 †*    0.0061 †*    0.0003 †*
 None 3.21 0.53   3.20 0.61   4.75 3.08   14.26 10.52   41.40 10.50  
  ≤ 3/month 3.18 0.59   3.19 0.59   4.81 2.66   13.44 7.28   40.33 8.07  
 1–2 times/week 3.24 0.50   3.34 0.58   5.97 2.92   18.23 9.36   46.57 9.97  
  ≥ 3 times/week 3.37 0.49   3.36 0.61   6.22 3.07   18.83 12.11   46.70 11.05  
Smoking status    0.0229 †*    0.8549    0.1947    0.5014    0.3956
 Smoking 3.36 0.37   3.24 0.51   5.82 2.54   16.54 9.84   44.31 9.18  
 No smoking 3.20 0.56   3.25 0.62   5.15 3.03   15.39 9.68   42.80 10.24  
Marital status    0.0254 †*    0.5241    0.7798    0.1007    0.0069 †*
 Unmarried 3.14 0.61   3.24 0.68   5.48 2.79   18.04 9.40   46.66 10.38  
 Married 3.23 0.51   3.24 0.58   5.16 3.05   14.70 9.79   41.78 9.76  
 Divorced, Separated, Bereaved 3.83 0.46   3.61 0.43   6.17 1.47   20.50 4.85   48.50 8.31  
 Other 3.56    3.33 .   6.00 .   17.00 .   53.00   
Occupational status    0.0156 †*    0.2370    0.8883    0.1544    0.0929*
 Private outpatient clinic practitioner 3.20 0.51   3.25 0.57   5.20 2.98   14.68 9.71   41.86 9.69  
 Professor 3.44 0.58   3.58 0.40   6.50 2.38   21.75 11.87   46.75 8.18  
 Resident 3.45 0.48   3.21 0.64   5.77 2.35   17.92 7.01   46.00 7.12  
 Hospital employed dentist 3.41 0.53   3.43 0.65   5.43 2.61   18.30 9.66   47.37 10.94  
 Clinic employed dentist 3.21 0.59   3.09 0.56   4.73 3.15   13.13 6.06   43.60 6.41  
 Other 2.88 0.65   3.05 0.73   5.25 3.91   18.00 12.35   42.56 14.63  
Working time per day    0.0024 †*    0.0005 †*    0.2277    0.0010 †*    < 0.0001 †*
 4–8 h 3.07 0.61   3.10 0.62   5.27 3.32   14.12 9.98   40.08 10.53  
 8–10 h 3.28 0.46   3.35 0.55   5.15 2.73   15.91 9.19   44.18 9.39  
  ≥ 10 h 3.51 0.52   3.17 0.61   5.68 2.58   17.95 8.28   46.63 6.07  
 Other 3.67    5.00 .   11.00 .   50.00 .   78.00   
Job satisfaction    0.0001 †*    < 0.0001 †*    0.0001 †*    < 0.0001 †*    < 0.0001 †*
 Satisfied 3.12 0.56   2.91 0.52   4.25 2.48   10.06 6.91   37.15 7.95  
 Not bad 3.22 0.49   3.36 0.53   5.64 3.16   17.28 9.30   45.07 9.51  
 Unsatisfied 3.65 0.54   3.84 0.54   6.74 2.28   25.65 8.83   52.74 7.81  
  1. BEPSI-K, Brief Encounter Psychosocial Instrument Korean version; CES-D, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale; N, number of participants; PSQI, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; SD, standard deviation; STAI-S, State-Trait Anxiety Index situation-related state anxiety
  2. ; p-value <0.05
  3. *; p-value <0.1 (confounding factors for multiple regression analysis)
  4. The statistical analysis was performed by an independent sample t-test or one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA)