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Table 1 Baseline characteristics

From: Economic evaluation of an experience sampling method intervention in depression compared with treatment as usual using data from a randomized controlled trial

  ESM-I (n = 33) Pseudo-intervention (n = 35) Control group (n = 33)
Gender, male: n (%) 17 (51.5) 14 (40.0) 15 (45.5)
Age, years: mean (SD) 49 (10.2) 47 (9.7) 49 (10.9)
Education
 low (no/primary/low secondary) 6 (18.1) 9 (25.7) 10 (30.3)
 medium (high school/low vocational) 12 (36.4) 14 (40.0) 12 (36.3)
 high (higher vocational/university) 15 (45.5) 12 (34.3) 11 (33.3)
Depressive symptoms (HDRS): mean (SD) 13.5 (5.6) 15.1 (6.9) 15.5 (5.4)
 range 2–30 2–30 5–27
Treated in primary care 7 (21) 6 (17) 8 (24)
Bipolar disorder 2 (6) 2 (6) 5 (15)
DSM-IV axis I comorbidity 12 (36) 16 (46) 12 (36)
Psychotherapy yes/no 4 (15) 4 (13) 2 (7)
Use of antidepressant medicationa
 New 2 (6) 3 (9) 1 (3)
 Switch 3 (9) 3 (9) 7 (21)
 Maintenance 28 (85) 29 (83) 25 (76)
QALYs, last 12 weeks, mean (SD)
 EQ-5D, UK tariff (Dolan) (range − 0.04; 0.23) 0.15 (0.07) 0.14 (0.06) 0.12 (0.07)
Health care costs (last 12 weeks), mean (SD)
 Health care use €2230 (€7186) €3150 (€4369) €1999 (€4348)
 Medication €42 (€145) €18 (€59) €32 (€79)
 Total €2273 (€7179) €3168 (€4363) €2032 (€4342)
Societal (last 12 weeks), mean (SD)
 Absence from work €2541 (€5983) €2154 (€4852) €2785 (€5066)
 Productivity loss at work €2156 (€3910) €2135 (€3486) €2637 (€4224)
 Total (incl. health care costs) €6828 (€12817) €7458 (€10201) €7291 (€9360)
  1. HDRS 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, QALY quality adjusted life year, EQ-5D EuroQol-5D-3L
  2. aNew and switch are defined as shorter than 8 weeks on this medication; the rest is maintenance