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Table 1 Descriptive statistics and standardized factor loadings from the first-order confirmatory factor analysis of the 24-item revised Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale (ASHSr)

From: Validation of the Farsi version of the revised Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale (ASHSr): a cross-sectional study

  M SD Range Skew Kurt Λ
Physiological Factor
 After 6:00 pm, I have drinks with caffeine (e.g., cola, pop, root beer, iced tea, coffee). 3.53 0.55 1–5 0.12 −1.37 .57***
 During the hour before bedtime, I am very active (e.g., playing outside, running wrestling). 3.21 0.53 1–5 0.09 −1.33 .41**
 During the hour before bedtime, I drink >4 glasses of water (or some other liquid). 3.67 0.51 1–5 −0.06 −1.14 .16*
 I go to bed with a stomachache. 2.09 0.48 1–5 1.22 0.27 .68***
 I go to bed feeling hungry. 2.11 0.45 1–5 1.15 0.27 .61***
Behavioral Arousal Factor
 During the hour before bedtime, I do things that make me feel very awake (e.g., playing video games, watching TV, talking on the telephone). 3.28 0.50 1–5 0.18 −1.04 .60***
 I go to bed and do things in my bed that keep me awake (e.g., watching TV, reading). 3.11 0.51 1–5 0.24 −1.14 .70***
 I use my bed for things other than sleep (e.g., talking on the telephone, watching TV, playing video games, doing homework). 2.97 0.53 1–5 0.40 −1.10 .70***
Cognitive/Emotional Factor
 I go to bed and think about things I need to do. 4.33 0.48 1–5 −0.54 −0.78 .19*
 I go to bed and replay the day’s events over and over in my mind. 3.95 0.51 1–5 −0.23 −1.17 .29**
 I check my clock several times during the night. 2.89 0.52 1–5 0.50 −0.92 .43**
 During the 1 h before bedtime, things happen that make me feel strong emotions (sadness, anger, excitement). 3.27 0.53 1–5 0.24 −1.19 .51***
 I go to bed feeling upset. 2.99 0.52 1–5 0.56 −0.94 .79***
 I go to bed and worry about things at home or at school. 3.38 0.52 1–5 0.18 −1.19 .67***
Daytime Sleep Factor
 During the day, I take a nap that lasts >1 h. 3.16 0.56 1–5 0.26 −1.28 .84***
 After 6:00 pm, I take a nap. 2.01 0.45 1–5 1.44 1.15 .39**
Sleep Environment Factor
 I fall asleep while listening to loud music. 2.99 0.56 1–5 0.33 −1.30 .51***
 I fall asleep while watching TV. 2.99 0.52 1–5 0.32 −1.09 .59***
 I fall asleep in a brightly lit room (e.g., the overhead light is on). 2.34 0.50 1–5 0.92 −0.40 .56***
 I fall asleep in a room that feels too hot or too cold. 2.73 0.54 1–5 0.56 −1.06 .56***
 I fall asleep in one place and then move to another place during the night. 2.22 0.49 1–5 1.05 −0.15 .57***
Sleep Stability Factor
 During the school week, I stay up more than 1 h past my usual bedtime. 3.34 0.52 1–5 0.12 −1.24 .36**
 On weekends, I stay up more than 1 h past my usual bedtime. 4.20 0.51 1–5 −0.53 −0.90 .83***
 On weekends, I sleep in more than 1 h past my usual wake time. 4.21 0.51 1–5 −0.50 −0.92 .69***
  1. Note. Λ=Standardized factor loadings. Response choices were on a 6-point ordinal scale: 1 = never, 2 = once in a while, 3 = sometimes, 4 = quite often, 5 = frequently, if not always, 6 = always
  2. * p < .05. ** p < .01. *** p < .001