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Table 1 Frequencies and Unadjusted Odds Ratios of Characteristics Measured in 2004–2006 by Persistent PTSD at the First Follow-Up for Millennium Cohort Participants (N = 2409)

From: Factors associated with persistent posttraumatic stress disorder among U.S. military service members and veterans

Variables Persistent PTSD  
No (N = 1286) Yes (N = 1123) OR 95% CI
Demographics Number Percent Number Percent   
Sex
 Male 823 64.0 742 66.1 1.0  
 Female 463 36.2 381 33.9 0.91 0.77–1.08
Birth year*
 Prior to 1960 145 11.3 172 15.3 1.60 1.23–2.10
 1960–1969 326 25.4 286 25.5 1.19 0.95–1.48
 1970–1979 419 32.6 372 33.1 1.20 0.98–1.47
 1980 or later 396 30.8 293 26.1 1.0  
Education*
 Some college or less 1019 79.2 936 83.3 1.0  
 Bachelor’s degree or higher 267 20.8 187 16.7 0.76 0.62–0.94
Race/ethnicity
 Non-Hispanic White 928 72.2 781 69.5 1.0  
 Non-Hispanic Black 132 10.3 146 13.0 1.31 1.02–1.69
 Other 226 17.6 196 17.5 1.03 0.83–1.28
Marital status*
 Never married 532 41.4 403 35.9 1.0  
 Married 615 47.8 587 52.3 1.26 1.06–1.50
 Other 139 10.8 133 11.8 1.26 0.96–1.66
Military Characteristics
Service branch*
 Army 753 58.6 722 64.3 1.44 1.14–1.81
 Navy/Coast Guard 216 16.9 162 14.4 1.12 0.84–1.51
 Marine Corps 95 7.4 91 8.1 1.44 1.01–2.05
 Air Force 222 17.3 148 13.2 1.0  
Service component
 Active duty 656 51.0 6594 52.9 1.08 0.92–1.27
 Reserve/National Guard 630 49.0 529 47.1 1.0  
Pay grade*
 E1–E4 607 46.2 556 49.5 1.66 1.27–2.17
 E5–E9 496 38.6 466 41.5 1.70 1.29–2.24
 Officer 183 14.2 101 9.0 1.0  
Military separation
 No 1038 80.7 877 78.1 1.0  
 Yes 248 19.3 246 21.9 1.17 0.96–1.43
Military occupation
 Combat 231 18.0 217 19.3 0.96 0.73–1.35
 Health care 133 10.3 126 11.2 1.0  
 Other 922 71.7 780 69.5 0.89 0.69–1.16
Deployment experiencea,*
 Nondeployed 675 52.5 555 61.4 1.0  
 Deployed without combat 91 7.1 28 5.2 0.34 0.22–0.54
 Deployed, low combat 162 12.6 73 6.5 0.55 0.41–0.74
 Deployed, moderate combat 320 24.9 369 32.9 1.41 1.17–1.70
 Deployed, high combat 38 2.9 98 8.7 3.13 2.12–4.63
Medical Characteristics
PTSD severity at baseline (mean, SD per 10-point change in score)b,* 50.8 9.7 57.6 11.3 1.84 1.70–2.01
Depressionc,*
 No 538 41.8 277 24.7 1.0  
 Yes 748 58.2 846 75.3 2.20 1.84–2.62
Manic*
 No 1238 96.3 1025 91.3 1.0  
 Yes 48 3.7 98 8.7 2.47 1.73–3.52
Schizophrenia*
 No 1271 98.8 1090 97.1 1.0  
 Yes 15 1.2 33 2.9 2.56 1.39–4.75
Psychotropic medicationd,*
 No 1024 79.6 767 68.3 1.0  
 Yes 262 20.4 356 31.7 1.81 1.51–2.18
BMI categoriese,*
 Under/normal weight 457 35.5 365 32.5 1.0  
 Overweight 582 45.3 486 43.3 1.04 0.87–1.26
 Obese 247 19.2 272 24.2 1.38 1.11–1.72
Physical component score*
 Low 148 11.5 229 20.4 1.0  
 Mid 907 70.5 760 67.7 0.54 0.43–0.68
 High 231 18.0 134 11.9 0.37 0.28–0.50
Multiple somatic symptoms score*
  < 15 1079 83.9 778 69.3 1.0  
  ≥ 15 207 16.1 345 30.7 2.31 1.90–2.81
Behavioral Characteristics
Sleep duration*
  < 4 h/day 230 17.9 310 27.6 1.41 1.11–1.78
 4–6 h/day 358 27.8 368 23.9 1.15 0.82–1.61
  > 6 h/day 698 54.3 545 48.5 1.0  
Smoking*
 Past smoker/nonsmoker 934 72.6 778 69.2 1.0  
 Current smoker 352 27.4 3345 30.7 1.17 0.98–1.40
Alcohol-related problems
 No 960 74.6 826 73.5 1.0  
 Yes 326 25.4 297 26.5 1.06 0.88–1.27
Stressful Experiences
Divorced*
 No 778 60.5 600 53.4 1.0  
 Yes 508 39.5 523 46.6 1.33 1.14–1.57
Financial problems*
 No 923 71.8 765 68.1 1.0  
 Yes 363 28.2 358 31.9 1.19 1.00–1.42
Sexual assault*
 None 893 69.4 722 64.3 1.0  
 Harassment 158 12.3 149 13.3 1.17 0.91–1.49
 Assault 235 18.3 252 22.4 1.33 1.08–1.62
Physical assault*
 No 1032 80.3 791 70.4 1.0  
 Yes 254 19.7 332 29.6 1.70 1.41–2.06
Ill/Death of a loved one*
 No 326 25.3 229 20.4 1.0  
 Yes 960 74.7 894 79.6 1.33 1.09–1.61
Disabling illness/injury*
 No 989 76.9 725 64.6 1.0  
 Yes 297 23.1 398 35.4 1.82 1.53–2.19
  1. BMI =body mass index, CI =confidence interval, OR =odds ratio, PHQ =Patient Health Questionnaire, PTSD =posttraumatic stress disorder
  2. aDeployments include those which occurred prior to the 2007 survey date and were in support of operations in Iraq and Afghanistan
  3. bPTSD severity at baseline was included as a continuous variable to adjust for varying PTSD scores. Results were modeled using a 10 point change in the severity score based on the standard deviation and what would be considered a clinically relevant change the PTSD score
  4. cDepression includes diagnosis by a medical professional or screening positive on the PHQ-9
  5. dEndorsed “yes” to survey question, “Are you currently taking any medicine for anxiety, depression, or stress?”
  6. eBMI categories: under/normal weight (≤24.9 kg/m2), overweight (25.0–29.9 kg/m2), and obese (≥30 kg/m2)
  7. *Variable significant at p < 0.20 using chi-square testing