Skip to main content

Advertisement

Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Table 2 Multivariable Regression Analysis of Predictors of Persistent PTSD at the First (2007–2008) and Second Follow-Ups (2011–2013)

From: Factors associated with persistent posttraumatic stress disorder among U.S. military service members and veterans

  First Follow-Up
(N = 2409)
(47% With Persistent PTSD)
Second Follow-Up
(N = 822)
(71.2% With Persistent PTSD)
Characteristic* OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
Birth year
 Prior to 1960 2.34 1.68–3.54 2.68 1.53–4.68
 1960–1969 1.71 1.25–2.36 2.11 1.32–3.36
 1970–1979 1.42 1.11–1.83 1.40 0.91–2.14
 1980 or later 1.00   1.00  
Pay grade
 Junior enlisted (E1–E4) 2.10 1.50–2.93   
 Senior enlisted (E5–E9) 1.68 1.25–2.27   
 Officer 1.00    
Deployment experiencea
 Nondeployed 1.00   1.00  
 Deployed without combat 0.56 0.36–0.90 0.91 0.33–2.51
 Deployed, low combat 0.73 0.53–1.00 1.77 0.90–3.50
 Deployed, moderate combat 1.72 1.39–2.12 1.44 0.98–2.12
 Deployed, high combat 3.91 2.56–5.96 2.63 1.27–5.42
PTSD severity at baselineb
 Per 10 point change in score 1.59 1.45–1.74 1.23 1.06–1.43
Multiple somatic symptoms score
  < 15 1.00    
  ≥ 15 1.47 1.18–1.83   
Depressionc
 No 1.00   1.00  
 Yes 1.50 1.23–1.83 2.33 1.63–3.33
Physical assault
 No 1.00    
 Yes 1.25 1.01–1.54   
Sleep duration
  < 4 h per day    1.75 1.15–2.69
 4–6 h per day    1.08 0.74–1.58
  > 6 h per day    1.00  
Separation from military
 No    1.00  
 Yes    1.57 1.12–2.21
Social support
 Not bothered/bothered a little    1.00  
 Bothered a lot    1.51 1.09–2.10
Disabling injury/illness
 No 1.00    
 Yes 1.35 1.11–1.66   
  1. CI =confidence interval, OR =odds ratio, PHQ =Patient Health Questionnaire, PTSD =posttraumatic stress disorder
  2. aDeployments include those which occurred any time prior to the 2007 survey date and were in support of operations in Iraq and Afghanistan
  3. bPTSD severity at baseline was included as a continuous variable to adjust for varying PTSD scores. Results were modeled using a 10 point change in the severity score based on the standard deviation and what would be considered a clinically relevant change the PTSD score
  4. cDepression includes diagnosis by a medical professional or screening positive on the PHQ-9
  5. *All variables with OR and 95% CI are significant at the alpha < 0.05 level