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Table 2 Sociodemographic characteristics at enrollment of long-acting injectable antipsychotic therapy vs oral antipsychotic therapy usersa

From: The Research and Evaluation of Antipsychotic Treatment in Community Behavioral Health Organizations, Outcomes (REACH-OUT) study: real-world clinical practice in schizophrenia

  LAI APT  
  Total
n = 599
New User
n = 214
Continuous User
n = 385
Oral APT
n = 281
Age, years
 N 566 200 366 265
 Mean (SD) 41.1 (12.42) 39.4 (12.01) 42.0 (12.56) 42.1 (13.49)
P value (LAI vs oral) 0.268 0.021 0.921  
Sex, n (%)
 N 585 207 378 275
 Male 424 (72.5) 155 (74.9) 269 (71.2) 181 (65.8)
 Female 161 (27.5) 52 (25.1) 109 (28.8) 94 (34.2)
P value (LAI vs oral) 0.054 0.031 0.144  
Race, n (%)
 N 577 203 374 271
 White 292 (50.6) 85 (41.9) 207 (55.3) 133 (49.1)
 Black or African American 188 (32.6) 90 (44.3) 98 (26.2) 90 (33.2)
 Asian, Native Hawaiian, or other Pacific Islander 9 (1.6) 3 (1.5) 6 (1.6) 1 (0.4)
 American Indian or Alaska Native 12 (2.1) 3 (1.5) 9 (2.4) 8 (3.0)
 Multiracial/Other 76 (13.2) 22 (10.8) 54 (14.4) 39 (14.4)
P value (LAI vs oral) 0.645 0.092 0.276  
Ethnicity (Spanish, Hispanic, Latino), n (%)
 N 576 200 376 274
 No 494 (85.8) 174 (87.0) 320 (85.1) 202 (73.7)
 Yes 82 (14.2) 26 (13.0) 56 (14.9) 72 (26.3)
P value (LAI vs oral) <0.001 <0.001 <0.001  
Education, n (%)
 N 584 207 377 272
 8th grade or less 56 (9.6) 25 (12.1) 31 (8.2) 45 (16.5)
 Some high school, did not graduate/get GED 161 (27.6) 56 (27.1) 105 (27.9) 70 (25.7)
 High school degree/GED 222 (38.0) 70 (33.8) 152 (40.3) 101 (37.1)
 Some college or college degree 145 (24.8) 56 (27.1) 89 (23.6) 56 (20.6)
P value (LAI vs oral) 0.030 0.234 0.019  
Military service, n (%)
 N 581 206 375 273
 No 535 (92.1) 187 (90.8) 348 (92.8) 255 (93.4)
 Yes 46 (7.9) 19 (9.2) 27 (7.2) 18 (6.6)
P value (LAI vs oral) 0.577 0.309 0.868  
Marital status, n (%)
 N 584 206 378 275
 Single, never married 413 (70.7) 149 (72.3) 264 (69.8) 160 (58.2)
 Married 37 (6.3) 9 (4.4) 28 (7.4) 27 (9.8)
 Widowed 13 (2.2) 2 (1.0) 11 (2.9) 8 (2.9)
 Divorced/Separated 108 (18.5) 41 (19.9) 67 (17.7) 72 (26.2)
 Nonmarried committed relationship 13 (2.2) 5 (2.4) 8 (2.1) 8 (2.9)
P value (LAI vs oral) 0.010 0.012 0.035  
Living situation, n (%)
 N 586 207 379 273
 Clinical facilityb 10 (1.71) 6 (2.90) 4 (1.06) 2 (0.73)
 Supervised group living (generally long-term) 67 (11.4) 15 (7.2) 52 (13.7) 7 (2.6)
 Transitional group home (halfway/quarterway house) 3 (0.5) 1 (0.5) 2 (0.5) 3 (1.1)
 Family foster care 1 (0.2) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.3) 1 (0.4)
 Cooperative apartment 20 (3.4) 8 (3.9) 12 (3.2) 9 (3.3)
 Boarding home 47 (8.0) 27 (13.0) 20 (5.3) 17 (6.2)
 Private house or apartment 410 (70.0) 139 (67.1) 271 (71.5) 212 (77.7)
 Other 28 (4.8) 11 (5.3) 17 (4.5) 22 (8.1)
P value (LAI vs oral) 0.001 0.036 <0.001  
Medicare, n (%)
 N 575 202 373 266
 No 275 (47.8) 106 (52.5) 169 (45.3) 166 (62.4)
 Yes 300 (52.2) 96 (47.5) 204 (54.7) 100 (37.6)
P value (LAI vs oral) <0.001 0.036 <0.001  
Medicaid or medical assistance, n (%)
 N 574 202 372 270
 No 140 (24.4) 61 (30.2) 79 (21.2) 101 (37.4)
 Yes 434 (75.6) 141 (69.8) 293 (78.8) 169 (62.6)
P value (LAI vs oral) <0.001 0.115 <0.001  
Private health insurance, n (%)
 N 573 200 373 273
 No 535 (93.4) 183 (91.5) 352 (94.4) 248 (90.8)
 Yes 38 (6.6) 17 (8.5) 21 (5.6) 25 (9.2)
P value (LAI vs oral) 0.204 0.872 0.088  
Veterans or military medical benefits, n (%)
 N 580 203 377 273
  No 569 (98.1) 200 (98.5) 369 (97.9) 271 (99.3)
  Yes 11 (1.9) 3 (1.5) 8 (2.1) 2 (0.7)
  P value (LAI vs oral) 0.242 0.646 0.202  
  1. APT antipsychotic therapy, GED general education diploma, LAI long-acting injectable (includes paliperidone palmitate long-acting injectable and risperidone long-acting injectable), SD standard deviation
  2. aAll subjects with schizophrenia. bIncludes hospital, skilled nursing facility (24-h nursing), and intermediate care facility (<24-h nursing)