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Table 1 Study factors and antenatal depressive symptoms of mothers from South Western Sydney and Sydney Local Health Districts in 2014 (N = 17,564)

From: Determinants of antenatal depression and postnatal depression in Australia

  Complete cases Multiple imputation a
Outcome Participants Cases % Unadjusted OR (95%CI) P value Adjusted OR (95%CI) P value Unadjusted OR (95%CI) P value Adjusted OR (95%CI) P value
Antenatal depressive symptoms 13,610 846 6.2         
Socio-economic status
 Low 5716 450 7.9 1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0  
 Medium 5968 321 5.4 0.6 (0.5–0.7) < 0.001 0.8 (0.7–1.0) 0.060 0.6 (0.5–0.7) < 0.001 0.8 (0.7–0.9) < 0.001
 High 1524 43 2.8 0.3 (0.2–0.4) < 0.001 0.5 (0.3–0.7) 0.001 0.3 (0.2–0.4) < 0.001 0.5 (0.4–0.5) < 0.001
CALD group
 No 6173 278 4.5 1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0  
 Yes 6638 528 8.0 1.8 (1.5–2.1) < 0.001 2.0 (1.6–2.4) < 0.001 1.6 (1.6–1.7) < 0.001 1.8 (1.7–1.9) < 0.001
Supportive Partner
 Yes 12,805 666 5.2 1.0   1.0   1.0   1.00  
 No/unsure 437 140 32.0 8.5 (6.9–10.6) < 0.001 6.1 (4.6–7.9) < 0.001 8.5 (8.2–8.9) < 0.001 6.1 (5.9–6.4) < 0.001
Antenatal health problems
 No 8573 465 5.4 1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0  
 Yes 3774 273 7.2 1.3 (1.1–1.5) < 0.001 1.2 (1.0–1.5) 0.003 1.3 (1.3–1.4) < 0.001 1.2 (1.2–1.3) < 0.001
Physical intimate partner violence
 No 13,140 182 5.9 1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0  
 Yes 777 50 27.5 6.0 (4.3–8.4) < 0.001 2.6 (1.6–4.2) < 0.001 6.4 (6.1–6.8) < 0.001 3.1 (2.9–3.4) < 0.001
Psychological intimate partner violence
 No 12,989 768 5.9 1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0  
 Yes 133 43 32.3 7.0 (5.2–11.0) < 0.001 4.8 (3.0–7.8) < 0.001 8.0 (7.6–8.5) < 0.001 4.1 (3.8–4.4) < 0.001
Maternal age group
 20–34 years 9382 571 6.1 1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0  
  > 35 years 3206 207 6.5 1.0 (1.1–2.5) 0.452 1.0 (0.8–1.2) 0.624 1.0 (1.0–1.1) < 0.001 1.1 (1.0–1.1) < 0.001
  < 20 years 243 24 9.9 1.7 (1.1–2.6) 0.017 1.4 (0.8–2.5) 0.178 1.5 (1.4–1.6) < 0.001 1.3 (1.2–1.4) < 0.001
  1. Data on risk factors and antenatal depressive symptoms were collected at the first antenatal clinic visit. Multivariate model adjusted for variables with p-value < 0.1 in univariate analysis. The variables include maternal age, socioeconomic status, CALD group, supportive partner, history of physical intimate partner violence, antenatal health problems and history of fear of partner/ex-partner
  2. CALD culturally and linguistically diverse
  3. a Sensitivity analyses following multiple imputations for missing values