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Table 1 Prevalence of self-harm by sample characteristics (N = 5726)

From: A self-harm series and its relationship with childhood adversity among adolescents in mainland China: a cross-sectional study

Variables n (%) Highly lethal self-harm Less lethal self-harm with visible tissue damage Self-harm without visible tissue damage Self-harmful behaviors with latency damage Psychological self-harm
n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%)
Gender
 Female 2878 (50.3) 197 (6.8) 763 (26.5) 972 (33.8) 600 (20.8) 749 (26.0)
 Male 2848 (49.7) 152 (5.3) 405 (14.2) 862 (30.3) 545 (19.1) 567 (19.9)
Age
 12 years 876 (15.3) 28 (3.2) 133 (15.2) 217 (24.8) 91 (10.4) 119 (13.6)
 13 years 919 (16.0) 59 (6.4) 191 (20.8) 297 (32.3) 170 (18.5) 200 (21.8)
 14 years 842 (14.7) 56 (6.7) 180 (21.4) 239 (28.4) 156 (18.5) 165 (19.6)
 15 years 803 (14.0) 56 (7.0) 174 (21.7) 234 (29.1) 170 (21.2) 185 (23.0)
 16 years 892 (15.6) 63 (7.1) 178 (20.0) 302 (33.9) 187 (21.0) 234 (26.2)
 17 years 996 (17.4) 62 (6.2) 226 (22.7) 382 (38.4) 267 (26.8) 295 (29.6)
 18 years 398 (7.0) 25 (6.3) 86 (21.6) 163 (41.0) 104 (26.1) 118 (29.6)
Self-perceived family status
 Bad 800 (14.0) 57 (7.1) 183 (22.9) 304 (38.0) 187 (23.4) 227 (28.4)
 General 4377 (76.4) 256 (5.8) 877 (20.0) 1370 (31.3) 846 (19.3) 967 (22.1)
 Good 549 (9.6) 36 (6.6) 108 (19.7) 160 (29.1) 112 (20.4) 122 (22.2)
Relationship with mother
 Good 4373 (76.4) 227 (5.2) 843 (19.3) 1358 (31.1) 795 (18.2) 927 (21.2)
 Poor 1353 (23.6) 122 (9.0) 325 (24.0) 476 (35.2) 350 (25.9) 389 (28.8)
Relationship with father
 Good 3815 (66.6) 191 (5.0) 700 (18.3) 1135 (29.8) 666 (17.5) 779 (20.4)
 Poor 1911 (33.4) 158 (8.3) 468 (24.5) 699 (36.6) 479 (25.1) 537 (28.1)
Only child
 Yes 2469 (43.1) 113 (4.6) 399 (16.2) 711 (28.8) 435 (17.6) 481 (19.5)
 No 3257 (56.9) 236 (7.2) 769 (23.6) 1123 (34.5) 710 (21.8) 835 (25.6)
Family structure
 Nuclear family 3792 (66.2) 225 (5.9) 765 (20.2) 1190 (31.4) 761 (20.1) 867 (22.9)
 Lager family 1353 (23.6) 91 (6.7) 276 (20.4) 447 (33.0) 256 (18.9) 310 (22.9)
 Single-parent family 469 (8.2) 26 (5.5) 99 (21.1) 152 (32.4) 99 (21.1) 112 (23.9)
 Other 112 (2.0) 7 (6.3) 28 (25.0) 45 (40.2) 29 (25.9) 27 (24.1)
Childhood physical peer victimization
 Yes 4494 (78.5) 213 (4.7) 778 (17.3) 1264 (28.1) 761 (16.9) 879 (19.6)
 No 1232 (21.5) 136 (11.0) 390 (31.7) 570 (46.3) 384 (31.2) 437 (35.5)
Childhood verbal peer victimization
 Yes 3325 (58.1) 152 (4.6) 525 (15.8) 832 (25.0) 522 (15.7) 552 (16.6)
 No 2401 (41.9) 197 (8.2) 643 (26.8) 1002 (41.7) 623 (25.9) 764 (31.8)
Childhood relational peer victimization
 Yes 4143 (72.4) 175 (4.2) 615 (14.8) 1039 (25.1) 578 (14.0) 674 (16.3)
 No 1583 (27.6) 174 (11.0) 553 (34.9) 795 (50.2) 567 (35.8) 642 (40.6)
Physical abuse
 Yes 425 (7.4) 71 (16.7) 155 (36.5) 236 (55.5) 171 (40.2) 205 (48.2)
 No 5301 (92.6) 278 (5.2) 1013 (19.1) 1598 (30.1) 974 (18.4) 1111 (21.0)
Emotional abuse
 Yes 632 (11.0) 112 (17.7) 263 (41.6) 356 (56.3) 257 (40.7) 308 (48.7)
 No 5094 (89.0) 237 (4.7) 905 (17.8) 1478 (29.0) 888 (17.4) 1008 (19.8)
Sexual abuse
 Yes 499 (8.7) 88 (17.6) 206 (41.3) 268 (53.7) 210 (42.1) 220 (44.1)
 No 5227 (91.3) 261 (5.0) 962 (18.4) 1566 (30.0) 935 (17.9) 1096 (21.0)
Physical neglect
 Yes 379 (6.6) 77 (20.3) 166 (43.8) 229 (60.4) 179 (47.2) 198 (52.2)
 No 5347 (93.4) 272 (5.1) 1002 (18.7) 1605 (30.0) 966 (18.1) 1118 (20.9)
Emotional neglect
 Yes 228 (4.0) 63 (27.6) 111 (48.7) 144 (63.2) 116 (50.9) 124 (54.4)
 No 5498 (96.0) 286 (5.2) 1057 (19.2) 1690 (30.7) 1029 (18.7) 1192 (21.7)
Family life stress event scores
 0 2049 (35.8) 95 (4.6) 239 (11.7) 417 (20.4) 258 (12.6) 255 (12.4)
 1–2 2337 (40.8) 144 (6.2) 514 (22.0) 805 (34.4) 484 (20.7) 588 (25.2)
 3–10 1340 (23.4) 110 (8.2) 415 (31.0) 612 (45.7) 403 (30.1) 473 (35.3)
Depression
 Yes 3711 (64.8) 301 (8.1) 891 (24.0) 1341 (36.1) 896 (24.1) 1023 (27.6)
 No 2015 (35.2) 48 (2.4) 277 (13.7) 493 (24.5) 249 (12.4) 293 (14.5)