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Table 4 Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with TRD-UP, BP-I and BP-II (N = 194)

From: Psychopathological and sociodemographic features in treatment-resistant unipolar depression versus bipolar depression: a comparative study

  TRD-UP (n = 100) BP-I (n = 52) BP-II (n = 42) Statistics
Age (Years) (Mean ± SD) 46.5 ± 13.3 39.7 ± 15.2+ 41.7 ± 13.2 F2,191 = 4.6, p = 0.011
Ratio of Males: Females 41:59 21:31 16:26 χ2 = 0.11, p = 0.949
Patients≤65 years of age 90 (90%) 49 (94%) 42 (100%) χ2 = 4.83, p = 0.089
Marital status 41 (41%) 8 (15%) *** 7 (17%) *** χ2 = 14.81, p = 0.001
Unemployed/Disability sick leave 74 (74%) 42 (80%) 20 (48%)* **,### χ2 = 13.67, p = 0.001
Age of first major depressive episode (Mean ± SD) 37.7 ± 15.3 28.9 ± 10.1+++ 23.2 ± 8.6+++ F2,191 = 21.0, p < 0.001
Early onset of major depressive episodes(< 25) 29 (29%) 30 (58%) *** 22 (53%) *** χ2 = 14.07, p = 0.001
Age of first psychiatric consultation (Mean ± SD) 35.9 ± 15.2 24.2 ± 10.5+++ 25.9 ± 11.2+++ F2,191 = 16.8, p < 0.001
Age of first psychiatric hospitalization (Mean ± SD) 40.1 ± 15.0 28.1 ± 11.7+++ 31.3 ± 12.6+ F2,123 = 10.0, p < 0.001
Patients with recurrent depression (> 3) 39 (39%) 27 (52%) 20 (48%) χ2 = 2.55, p = 0.279
Duration of illness-current episode (years) (Mean ± SD) 11.2 ± 10.4 12.2 ± 11.6 16.7 ± 12.2 F2,191 = 2.6, p = 0.075
Patients with comorbid substance use 27 (27%) 20 (39%) 12 (29%) χ2 = 2.21, p = 0.331
 History of Alcohol use 9 (9%) 6 (12%) 10 (24%) χ2 = 5.89, p = 0.053
 History of Cannabis use 6 (6%) 11 (21%) 8 (19%) χ2 = 8.81, p = 0.012
 History of Cocaine use 3 (3%) 1 (2%) 2 (5%) χ2 = 0.63, p = 0.730
Number of Failed pharmacotherapies (Mean ± SD) 3.6 ± 2.6 5.0 ± 2.5++ 5.6 ± 2.8+++ F2,191 = 9.9, p < 0.001
 Failed antidepressant trials (Mean ± SD) 2.5 ± 1.7 1.35 ± 1.4++ 2.0 ± 1.4 F2,191 = 5.4, p = 0.005
 Failed SGA (Mean ± SD) 0.65 ± 0.7 1.9 ± 1.1+++ 1.4 ± 1.2+++ F2,191 = 30.2, p < 0.001
 Failed Mood stabilizers (Mean ± SD) 0.3 ± 0.6 1.3 ± 0.8+++ 1.4 ± 1.0+++ F2,191 = 37.5, p < 0.001
Patients currently having psychotherapy 41 (41%) 43 (83%) *** 35 (83%) *** χ2 = 36.01, p < 0.001
Number of hospitalizations for depression since 1st episode    
 None 56 (56%) 1 (2%) *** 14 (33%) ***, ### χ2 = 43.36, p < 0.001
  > one 20 (20%) 39 (75%) *** 21 (50%) *** χ2 = 44.41, p < 0.001
Patients with 1st degree relative with affective illness 51 (51%) 31 (60%) 32 (76%)* χ2 = 7.76, p = 0.021
Patients with Anxiety disorders 61 (61%) 9 (17%) *** 13 (31%) *** χ2 = 29.74, p < 0.001
Patients with Panic disorders 19 (19%) 2 (4%) ** 1 (2%) ** χ2 = 12.09, p = 0.002
Patients with Melancholic symptoms 74 (74%) 22 (42%) *** 18 (42%) *** χ2 = 19.77, p < 0.001
Patients with Atypical symptoms 14 (14%) 11 (21%) 14 (33%)* χ2 = 6.93, p = 0.031
Patients with suicidal attempts 23 (23%) 17 (33%) 25 (60%) ***,## χ2 = 17.73, p < 0.001
History of MDE with psychotic symptoms 24 (24%) 16 (31%) 4 (10%) χ2 = 6.18, p = 0.045
Patients with Personality disorders (Axis II in DSM-IV) 44 (44%) 26 (50%) 19 (45%) χ2 = 0.50, p = 0.777
 Cluster A 7 (7%) 0 (0%) 1 (2%) χ2 = 4.65, p = 0.098
 Cluster B 19 (19%) 6 (12%) 10 (24%) χ2 = 2.49, p = 0.287
 Cluster C 25 (25%) 1 (2%) *** 4 (10%) *** χ2 = 15.38, p < 0.001
Patients with Medical condition potentially relevant to treatment (Axis III in DSM-IV)  
 Autoimmune diseases 11 (11%) 2 (4%) 0 (0%) χ2 = 6.65, p = 0.036
 Cardiovascular diseases 25 (25%) 10 (20%) 8 (19%) χ2 = 0.96, p = 0.618
 Chronic pain disorders 25 (25%) 8 (15%) 7 (17%) χ2 = 2.44, p = 0.295
 Neurological conditions 13 (13%) 3 (6%) 2 (5%) χ2 = 3.42, p = 0.181
 Metabolic disorder 19 (19%) 20 (38%)* 12 (29%) χ2 = 6.83, p = 0.033
Depression severity (Mean ± SD)     
 MADRS 30.8 ± 8.9 22.2 ± 6.7+++ 24.3 ± 7.2+++ F2,191 = 22.7, p < 0.001
 HAMD-17 23.2 ± 6.2 16.7 ± 4.7+++ 17.3 ± 4.5+++ F2,191 = 30.8, p < 0.001
 QIDS 15.8 ± 4.2 12.1 ± 3.7+++ 13.4 ± 4.0** F2,191 = 15.4, p < 0.001
 CGI-S 5.0 ± 1.2 4.2 ± 1.3++ 4.3 ± 1.1++ F2,191 = 8.8, p < 0.001
 GAF 55.5 ± 10.2 60.9 ± 4.4+++ 60.3 ± 4.9++ F2,191 = 11.7, p < 0.001
  1. SD Standard Deviation, TRD-UP Treatment-Resistant Unipolar Depression, BP-I Bipolar disorder type I, BP-II Bipolar Disorder type II, MDE Major depressive episode, SGA Second Generation Antipsychotics
  2. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001 versus UP-TRD; #p < 0.05, ##p < 0.01, ###p < 0.001 BP-I versus BP-II by Pearson’s chi-square test
  3. +p< 0.05, ++p < 0.01, +++p < 0.001 versus UP-TRD by One-way Anova plus Bonferroni post hoc analysis