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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: Yoga for posttraumatic stress disorder – a systematic review and meta-analysis

Author, year Participants and setting N Diagnostic instrument Mean age % female Treatment group Control group Outcome measures
Carter et al., 2013 [36] Australian veterans recruited from private psychiatry clinic and through advertisements 31 CAPS 58.5 years 0% Sudarshan Kriya Yoga: 22 h within 5 days, then once weekly for one month, then once monthly for 5 months, 120 min each Waitlist: 6 weeks CAPS, PCL-M
Jindani et al., 2015 [40] Canadan community-dwelling adults recruited through advertisements 80 PCL-17 41.00 years 89% Kundalini Yoga: 8 weeks, once weekly, 90 min each Waitlist: 8 weeks PCL-17
Mitchell et al., 2014 [41] Veterans and civilians recruited from a US Veteran Affairs medical center 38 PSS-I 44.37 years 100% Kripalu-based Yoga: 6 or 12 weeks, once or twice weekly, 75 min Assessment control: 12 weeks, once weekly, duration not reported PCL-C, TLEQ
Quinones et al., 2015 [42] Colombian reintegrating PTSD patients recruited through the Agencia Colombiana para la Reintegración 100 PCL-C Not reported 27% Satvananda Yoga: 16 weeks, twice weekly, 60 min Waitlist: 16 weeks PCL-C
Reinhardt et al., 2017 [43] US active duty military personnel and veterans recruited by flyers and advertisement 51 SCID-CT 46.74 years 8% Kripalu Yoga: 10 weeks, twice weekly, 90 min Assessment control: 10 weeks, three times in total, duration not reported PCL-M, PCL-C, CAPS, IES
Seppälä et al., 2014 [44] US veterans recruited through flyers and veteran and military organizations 21 PCL-M 28.65 years 0% Sudarshan Kriya Yoga: 7 days, once daily, 180 min Waitlist: 7 days PCL-M
Van der Kolk et al., 2014 [45] US women recruited through advertisements and mental health professionals 64 CAPS 42.9 years 100% Trauma-informed Yoga: 10 weeks, once weekly, 60 min Women’s health education: 10 weeks, once weekly, 60 min CAPS, DES, DTS
  1. CAPS Clinician-Administered Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Scale, DES Dissociative Experience Scale, DTS Davidson Trauma Scale, IES Impact of Events Scale, PCL-17 Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist, PCL-C Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian, PCL-M Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Military, PSS-I PTSD Symptom Scale-Interview, SCID-CT Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders, clinical trials version, TLEQ Trauma Life Events Questionnaire