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Table 1 Summary characteristics of included studies

From: Effectiveness of brief psychological interventions for suicidal presentations: a systematic review

  Participants Nature of suicide risk Study Design Setting Intervention Control Pre-intervention patient measures Post-intervention patient measures Outcomes Follow up period
Fleischmann et al 2008 [23] 5 sites (Brazil; India; Sri Lanka; Iran; and China) 1867 Adults
57% female, median age 23 years
Patients who have attempted suicide RCT Individual randomization Emergency care settings One-hour individual information session & periodic follow-up contacts after discharge for 18 months TAU (as per norms in the respective EDs) Questionnaire based on the European Parasuicide Study Interview Schedule (EPSIS) and adapted to each site One-page questionnaire: if patient still alive; if not cause of death; if yes any further suicide attempts; how the patient felt; needs for support Primary: Completed suicide 18 months
Gysin-Maillart et al 2016 [24] Switzerland 120 Adults
55% female, Mean age 37.8 years
Patients admitted to the ED who attempted suicide RCT Individual randomization Emergency department 3 face-to-face therapy sessions supplemented by regular, personalized letters to the participants for 24 months Enhanced TAU: TAU (inpatient, day patient, and individual outpatient care as considered necessary by the clinicians in charge) and one clinical interview Suicide Status Form (SSF-III) and 33-item questionnaire to collect sociodemographic, health and suicidal behaviour data Penn Helping Alliance Questionnaire; Beck Depression Inventory; Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation Primary: Repeat suicide attempts Secondary: Suicidal ideation, Depression, Health-care utilisation. 2 years
King et al 2015 [25] United States 49 Adolescents 65% female 14–19 years, Patients with suicide risk factors Pilot RCT Individual randomization Emergency department Personalized feedback, adapted motivational interview and follow-up note Enhanced TAU (basic mental health resources: crisis card, written information about depression, suicide risk, firearm safety and local mental health services) 2 questions based on the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale; 15-item Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire – Junior (SIQ-JR); Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale; Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test; Beck Hopelessness Scale Two questions adapted from the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale; Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale; The Beck Hopelessness Scale; The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test; Motivational interviewing Depression, hopelessness, suicidal ideation and alcohol use. 2 months
Miller et al 2017 [22] United States 1376 Adults
55.9% female
median age 37
Patients attending ED with suicide attempt or ideation in previous week Interrupted time series design Emergency department 1. Secondary suicide risk screening
2. Self-administered safety plan & information provided by nurses
3. Telephone follow-up to patients and a significant other
TAU (usual care at each site) and contacts for 1 year None 1. Telephone interviews
using the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale
2. Medical records
Suicide attempts, Suicide composite: occurrence of suicide, suicide attempt, interrupted/ aborted attempts & suicide preparatory acts 1 year