Skip to main content

Table 2 Description of interventions

From: Effectiveness of brief psychological interventions for suicidal presentations: a systematic review

  Theoretical foundation Characteristics of professionals delivering the intervention Professional training in intervention When was the intervention started Intervention Components No. & length of initial session/s No., mode & frequency of follow up contacts Who delivers contact/s in the ED Who delivers contact/s after ED Content of follow-up contacts Intervention completion
Fleischmann et al 2008 [23] Not described Trained psychiatrists, medical doctors, psychologists or psychiatric nurses Not described Within 3 days after assessment in ED 1. Information session: information about suicidal behaviour as a sign of psychological and/or social distress, risk and protective factors, basic epidemiology, repetition, alternatives to suicidal behaviours, and referral options.
2. Follow up contacts over 18 months
One 1-hr individual information session 9 telephone /face-to-face contacts at 1, 2, 4, 7 and 11 week(s), and 4, 6,12 and 18 months) Trained psychiatrists doctors, psychologists or psychiatric nurses Doctor, nurse, psychologist Phone calls or visits 91% received the full intervention
Gysin-Maillart et al 2015 [24] Action Theory, Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, and Attachment Theory. Four therapists: one psychiatrist, one psychologist experienced in clinical suicide prevention and two psychological therapists 1-week ASSIP training.
Adherence: peer reviews and supervision
Soon after assessment in ED 1. Session 1: narrative interview - patients were asked to tell their personal stories about how they had reached the point of attempting suicide
2. Session 2: Watch session 1 video-recording & psychoeducative handout-homework
3. Session 3: Discussion & case conceptualization: goals, warning signs, and safety strategies. Written case conceptualization, safety strategies & leaflet
4. 6 follow-up letters
Three 60–90 min sessions on a weekly basis 6 letters over 24 months: every 3 months in the first year and every 6 months in the second year Clinicians and therapists Clinicians and therapists Semi-standardized letters –to maintain the therapeutic relationship & reinforce safety strategy 93% completed the intervention at 24 months (95% at 12 months)
King et al 2015 [25] Motivational Interviewing, Self Determination Theory, Theory of Health Behavior, and Theory of Planned Behavior Three licensed Social Workers Min 40 Hours - conducted by a member of the Motivational Interviewing Trainers’ Network After initial emergency room visit 1. Individual AMI: personalized feedback to the teen, to explore ambivalence, build discrepancy, enhance teen’s problem importance and readiness to change
2. Family AMI: with parent/guardian to develop Personalized Action Plan Form, provide supplemental resource materials
3. Follow-up letter & telephone call
One individual 30–45 min session
One family 15–20 min session
Handwritten follow-up note and a telephone check-in two to five days after ED visit to support and facilitate action plan implementation Study therapists Study therapists Personalized follow up note & telephone check-in: Half receive telephone follow-up only. 85% received the full intervention 
Miller et al 2017 [22] Not described ED physicians & nurses Detailed manual of procedures, meetings and monthly teleconference to receive training updates, and problem solve In the ED 1. Secondary suicide risk screening by ED physician following an initial positive screen
2. self-administered safety plan and information to patients by nursing staff
3. follow-up telephone calls
Not described Up to 7 brief (10–20 min) telephone calls to the patient and up to 4 calls to a significant other, at 6, 12, 24, 36, and 52 weeks ED physicians and nursing staff 10 advisors: 6 PhD psychologists, 3 psychology fellows, and 1 masters-level counselor Case management, individual psychotherapy and significant other involvement following Coping Long Term with Active Suicide (CLASP)-ED protocol 1. Secondary suicide risk screening: 89.4%
2. Safety plan: 37.4%
3. Follow-up: 60.8% patients completed at least 1 phone call: of these median number 6 calls (range 2–7).
 19.9% patients had a significant other who completed at least 1 call: of these median number of 4 calls (range 3–4)