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Table 2 Median levels (25th and 75th percentile) of peripheral circulating cytokines according to clinical characteristics of the included patients

From: The effect of trauma and alcohol on the relationship between level of cytokines and depression among patients entering psychiatric treatment

Variable IL-1β (pg/mL)   IL-1RA (pg/mL)   TNF-α (pg/mL)   MCP-1 (pg/mL)  
Median (25th, 75th percentile) Sig.a Median (25th, 75th percentile) Sig.a Median (25th, 75th percentile) Sig.a Median (25th, 75th percentile) Sig.a
Demography
 Men n = 36 0.003 (0.003, 0.130) 0.604 26.2 (17.8, 46.1) 0.804 0.080 (0.046, 1.390) 0.346 27.7 (15.3, 43.7) 0.069
 Women n = 91 0.030 (0.003, 0.160) 27.5 (17.4, 40.3) 0.420 (0.046, 2.450) 21.1 (11.5, 32.6)
 Age   0.033 0.716 0.141 0.114 0.068 0.450 0.027 0.762
Psychometrics
 AUDIT (under cutoff score) n = 95 0.003 (0.003, 0.160) 0.730 24.8 (16.5, 42.5) 0.342 0.420 (0.046, 1.930) 0.768 20.8 (11.4, 33.1) 0.497
 AUDIT (over cutoff score) n = 32 0.050 (0.003, 0.128) 28.1 (20.5, 39.0) 0.420 (0.046, 2.393) 24.8 (10.4, 40.3)
 BDI-2 (minimal and mild depression) n = 27 0.003 (0.003, 0.200) 0.840 24.0 (15.4, 41.1) 0.564 0.420 (0.046, 2.450) 0.973 23.7 (14.4, 40.4) 0.277
 BDI-2 (moderate and severe depression) n = 100 0.025 (0.003, 0.130) 27.5 (17.5, 42.9) 0.245 (0.046, 2.108) 21.9 (12.4, 34.1)
Medication
 Anti-inflammatory drugs (no) n = 108 0.003 (0.003, 0.130) 0.050 b 27.5 (17.4, 42.8) 0.634 0.180 (0.046, 2.008) 0.818 22.9 (13.2, 34.3) 0.095
 Anti-inflammatory drugs (yes) n = 19 0.090 (0.003, 0.300) 24.8 (17.5, 34.3) 1.020 (0.060, 3.410) 22.2 (10.7, 38.6)
 Antidepressants (no) n = 85 0.040 (0.003, 0.160) 0.510 27.5 (17.0, 42.5) 0.654 0.420 (0.046, 2.455) 0.370 24.3 (14.8, 37.9) 0.126
 Antidepressants (yes) n = 42 0.003 (0.003, 0.133) 26.7 (19.6, 41.0) 0.185 (0.046, 1.250) 19.3 (10.6, 33.1)
History of trauma
 Childhood trauma (no) n = 50 0.003 (0.003, 0.123) 0.379 24.5 (16.3, 39.4) 0.215 0.090 (0.046, 1.060) 0.060 23.8 (14.7, 37.7) 0.576
 Childhood trauma (yes) n = 62 0.012 (0.003, 0.218) 28.1 (19.9, 41.3) 0.920 (0.046, 3.068) 22.9 (10.4, 36.9)
 Adult trauma (no) n = 53 0.003 (0.003, 0.100) 0.235 22.8 (17.0, 35.5) 0.097 0.310 (0.046, 2.095) 0.786 23.3 (13.4, 33.1) 0.438
 Adult trauma (yes) n = 59 0.060 (0.003, 0.170) 28.3 (18.7, 42.3) 0.420 (0.046, 2.450) 24.9 (10.7, 43.0)
 Any trauma (no) n = 30 0.003 (0.003, 0.100) 0.154 21.7 (14.8, 30.7) 0.048 c 0.070 (0.046, 0.775) 0.033 d 23.5 (16.9, 32.7) 0.838
 Any trauma (yes) n = 83 0.040 (0.003, 0.190) 28.4 (18.7, 42.1) 0.920 (0.046, 2.900) 23.7 (10.6, 38.6)
Main diagnosise
 Mood disorder (no) n = 80 0.060 (0.003, 0.200) 0.037 f 27.1 (17.3, 41.7) 0.982 0.390 (0.046, 2.450) 0.634 22.8 (11.6, 38.4) 0.829
 Mood disorder (yes) n = 32 0.003 (0.003, 0.060) 26.9 (20.4, 39.3) 0.310 (0.046, 2.045) 24.1 (14.1, 33.4)
 Anxiety disorder (no) n = 55 0.003 (0.003, 0.090) 0.008 g 25.5 (17.5, 37.6) 0.325 0.060 (0.046, 1.780) 0.111 23.8 (13.9, 33.1) 0.740
 Anxiety disorder (yes) n = 57 0.090 (0.003, 0.270) 29.3 (18.7, 44.1) 0.920 (0.046, 3.340) 23.3 (10.0, 43.0)
 Eating disorder (no) n = 91 0.003 (0.003, 0.160) 0.429 28.1 (18.7, 42.1) 0.171 0.420 (0.046, 2.460) 0.561 23.7 (13.2, 38.6) 0.414
 Eating disorder (yes) n = 21 0.003 (0.003, 0.115) 22.3 (15.7, 36.0) 0.100 (0.046, 1.905) 22.2 (11.8, 31.3)
  1. Notes: aSignificance levels for categorical variables were tested with the Mann-Whitney U test and for continuous variables with Spearman’s rho correlation. bPatients using anti-inflammatory drugs had higher levels of IL-1β. Exact p-value: 0.0498. c + dPatients with trauma history had higher levels of IL-1RA and TNF-α. eMain diagnosis: Mood disorders: F30-F34, Anxiety disorders: F40-F44, Eating disorders: F50.0-F50.3. fPatients with mood disorders had higher levels of IL-1β. gPatients with anxiety disorders had higher levels of IL-1β