Skip to main content

Table 2 Subject-proxy agreement on loneliness among living controls (n = 242)

From: The validity of proxy-based data on loneliness in suicide research: a case-control psychological autopsy study in rural China

Items of ULS-6 Self-reported data
Mean (SD)
Proxy data
Mean (SD)
Paired t-test p ICC p
1. I lack companionship. 1.75 (0.94) 1.98 (0.92) 3.297 0.001 0.446 0.000
2. There is no one I can turn to. 1.66 (0.84) 1.85 (0.83) 2.913 0.004 0.372 0.000
3. I feel left out. 1.61 (0.77) 1.81 (0.82) 3.099 0.002 0.315 0.002
4. I feel isolated from others. 1.55 (0.72) 1.77 (0.75) 3.724 0.000 0.345 0.001
5. I am unhappy being so withdrawn. 1.52 (0.69) 1.72 (0.71) 3.418 0.001 0.295 0.003
6. People are around me but not with me. 1.67 (0.85) 1.85 (0.83) 2.849 0.005 0.503 0.000
The total score of ULS-6 9.76 (3.90) 10.99 (4.01) 4.045 0.000 0.447 0.000