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Table 1 Characteristics of patients with non-cardiac chest pain

From: The associations between psychological distress and healthcare use in patients with non-cardiac chest pain: does a history of cardiac disease matter?

  Totala (N = 552) History of cardiac disease (n = 188) No history of cardiac disease (n = 360) p-value
Sex n (%)     < 0.001
 Males 271 (49) 112 (60) 157 (44)  
 Females 281 (51) 76 (40) 203 (56)  
Age year (mean ± SD) 64 ± 17 71 ± 13 60 ± 17 < 0.001
Married/cohabiting n (%) 370 (67) 117 (62) 251 (70) 0.062
Educational level n (%)     < 0.001
 Compulsory school 185 (34) 91 (48) 91 (25)  
 High school 216 (39) 60 (32) 156 (43)  
 University 150 (27) 37 (20) 112 (31)  
Work status n (%)     < 0.001
 Working 152 (28) 27 (14) 125 (35)  
 Retired 302 (55) 132 (70) 167 (46)  
 Sick-leave/disability pension 40 (7) 16 (9) 24 (7)  
 Other 57 (10) 13 (7) 44 (12)  
Smoking n (%)     0.471
 None/Previous smokers 493 (89) 166 (88) 325 (90)  
 Smokers 59 (11) 22 (12) 35 (10)  
Healthcare contacts n (%)     < 0.001
  ≤ 1 contacts per year 331 (60) 88 (47) 241 (67)  
 2-3 contacts per year 145 (26) 55 (29) 88 (24)  
  > 3 contacts per year 76 (14) 45 (24) 31 (9)  
History of illness n (%)
 Angina Pectoris 114 (21) 114 (61) 0 (0)
 Asthma/bronchitis 66 (12) 22 (12) 43 (12) 0.725
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 37 (7) 24 (13) 13 (4) < 0.001
 Diabetes 64 (11) 45 (24) 19 (5) < 0.001
 Gastric ulcer 48 (9) 18 (10) 30 (8) 0.213
 Heart failure 55 (10) 55 (29) 0 (0)
 Hypertension 247 (45) 116 (62) 131 (36) < 0.001
 Mental disorder 107 (20) 39 (21) 67 (19) 0.739
 Musculoskeletal pain 307 (55) 104 (55) 202 (56) 0.087
 Myocardial infarction 104 (19) 104 (55) 0 (0)
 Reflux/heartburn 234 (43) 67 (36) 166 (46) 0.005
Number of conditions (mean ± SD) 4 ± 2 5 ± 2 3 ± 2 < 0.001
  1. adata regarding history of cardiac disease missing for four patients