Skip to main content

Table 1 Sample characteristics stratified for severity of depressive symptoms (N = 14.499)

From: Associations between degree and sub-dimensions of depression and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the community: results from the Gutenberg Health Study (GHS)

  Depressive symptoms (PHQ score)
  0–4 5–9 10–14 15–27
  no minimal mild moderately severe/severe
Number 9403 a 3977 846 273
Sex, female 45.3% 56.7% 59.8% 61.2%
Age, in years; mean (SD) 55.2 (11.2) 54.4 (11.0) 53.1 (10.3) 51.7 (9.8)
SES, (3–21), median (1st/ 3rd quartile) 13.0 (10/17)) 12.0 (9/16) 11.0 (9/15) 11.0 (8/14)
Current smoker 17.9% 21.0% 27.1% 30.1%
Depressive symptoms
 Somatic-affective, median (1st/ 3rd quartile) 1 (1/2) 4 (3/4) 6 (5/7) 9 (7/10)
 Cognitive-affective, median (1st,/3rd quartile) 0 (0/1) 3 (2/4) 5 (4/6) 9 (8/10)
Any anxiety 3.7% 19.5% 56.4% 86.4%
Psychopharmacological treatment 4.9% 12.4% 24.6% 43.2%
Somatic conditions
 Risk determinants of MetS median (1st/3rd quartile) 2 (1/3) 2 (1/3) 2 (1/3) 2 (1/3)
Metabolic syndrome (full criteria) 32.0% 32.7% 34.4% 41.8%
 High triglycerides(> = 150 mg/dl or on drug treatment for increased triglycerides) 23.8% 25.4% 26.8% 33.0%
 Low HDL (< 40 mg/dl in men and < 50 mg/dl in women) 16.9% 18.6% 27.1% 25.5%
 Hypertension(> 130 mmHg systolic or > 85 mmHg diastolic or on antihypertensive drug treatment) 65.3% 62.9% 61.1% 65.3%
 Central obesity(waist circumference > 88 cm in women and > 94 cm in men) 67.0% 70.4% 74.3% 78.0%
 High fasting blood glucose(> = 100 mg/dl or on drug treatment for increased glucose) 21.8% 19.5% 18.5% 17.2%
 Diabetes 8.5% 9.8% 11.5% 11.8%
 Obesity (BMI > =30) 23.0% 26.9% 30.5% 38.6%
 Atrial fibrillation 2.6% 2.8% 2.4% 3.3%
 CHD 3.9% 4.7% 5.4% 5.9%
 Myocardial infarction 2.6% 3.5% 2.7% 3.3%
 PAOD 2.8% 4.0% 5.1% 6.4%
 Stroke 1.6% 1.9% 3.0% 1.8%
 Cancer 8.5% 10.1% 10.2% 7.0%
Health care utilization (last 4 weeks)
 Consulted somatic physicians 39.3% 46.8% 57.1% 64.0%
 Consulted psychiatrists 0.2% 0.5% 2.1% 9.2%
 Consulted psychotherapists 0.4% 0.9% 3.7% 8.1%
  1. a A total of 511 participants were excluded from analyses because of missing data: 278 participants had missings in PHQ-9; 249 participants had missings in parameters necessary for the determination of MetS, mostly fasting blood glucose in 238 participants