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Table 5 Depressive Symptoms (PHQ): Comparison between participants with (N = 4.717) and without MetS (N = 9.782)

From: Associations between degree and sub-dimensions of depression and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the community: results from the Gutenberg Health Study (GHS)

  OR (95%CI)
1 - Little interest or pleasure in doing things 1.01 (0.94/ 1.09)
2 - Feeling down, depressed, or hopeless 1.06 (0.98/ 1.15)
3 - Trouble falling or staying asleep, or sleeping too much 1.11 (1.03/ 1.20)
4 - Feeling tired or having little energy 1.13 (1.04/ 1.22)
5 - Poor appetite or overeating 1.45 (1.34/ 1.57)
6 - Feeling bad about yourself or that you are a failure or have let yourself or your family down 0.96 (0.88/ 1.05)
7 - Trouble concentrating on things, such as reading the newspaper or watching television 0.88 (0.82/ 0.95)
8 - Moving or speaking so slowly that other people could have noticed. Or the opposite being so fidgety or restless that you have been moving around a lot more than usual 1.00 (0.90/ 1.11)
9 - Thoughts that you would be better off dead, or of hurting yourself 1.09 (0.96/ 1.25)
  1. Logistic regression analyses of PHQ-9 items on MetS, models adjusted for age, sex and SES. Odds ratio above 1 indicate a trend towards a higher item response in MetS. ORs and 95%CI are presented; categories of the PHQ-9 items were dichotomized: 1–3 (several days, more than half the days, nearly every day) vs. 0 (not at all)
  2. Bold p < .001 are statistically significant