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Table 1 Demographic and Psychosocial Risk Factors Associated with Depression amongst respondents

From: Depression and its psychosocial risk factors in pregnant Kenyan adolescents: a cross-sectional study in a community health Centre of Nairobi

Variable

Category

Overall (N = 176)

Non-Depressed1 (N = 118)

Depressed2 (N = 58)

Mean(SD)

PHQ-Score

95% C.I.

Group Differences

Age in years

15-16 Years

27(15.3)

7(25.9)

20(74.1)

17.2(4.0)

(15.6-18.8)

(F(2, 173) = 18.63; P < 0.001)

17 Years

41(23.3)

25(61.0)

16(39.0)

11.3(7.0)

(9.0-13.5)

18 Years

108(61.4)

86(79.6)

22(20.4)

9.5(5.7)

(8.5-10.6)

Occupation

Unemployed

133(75.6)

84(63.2)

49(36.8)

11.8(6.4)

(10.7-12.9)

t(174) = 2.3; P = 0.020

Actively employed

43(24.4)

34(79.1)

9(20.9)

9.2(5.9)

(7.3-11.0)

Education level

Primary and below

141(80.1)

89(63.1)

52(36.9)

11.5(6.6)

(10.4-12.6)

t(174) = 1.7; P = 0.091

Secondary and above

35(19.9)

29(82.9)

6(17.1)

9.5(5.3)

(7.7-11.3)

Marital status

Unmarried

85(48.3)

40(47.1)

45(52.9)

14.7(5.1)

(13.6-15.8)

t(174) = 8.4; P < 0.001

Married

91(51.7)

78(85.7)

13(14.3)

7.8(5.7)

(6.6-9.0)

Living arrangements

Living with other

113(64.2)

48(58.5)

34(41.5)

8.6(5.9)

(7.5-9.7)

t(174) = −8.1; P < 0.001

Living with parents

63(35.8)

42(67.7)

20(32.3)

15.6(4.6)

(14.4-16.8)

Monthly income

< 10,000Ksh.

82(46.6)

28(87.5)

4(12.5)

12.4(6.2)

(11.0-13.7)

(F (2, 173) = 3.42;

P = 0.035)

10,000-14,999Ksh

62(35.2)

12(31.6)

26(68.4)

10.5(6.9)

(8.7-12.2)

> = 15,000Ksh

32(18.2)

106(76.8)

32(23.2)

9.2(5.0)

(7.4-11.0)

Type of housing

Temporary

38(21.6)

93(82.3)

20(17.7)

15.2(6.1)

(13.2-17.2)

t(174) = 4.7; P < 0.001

Permanent

138(78.4)

25(39.7)

38(60.3)

10.0(6.0)

(9.0-11.0)

Receiving social support

No

40(22.7)

10(25.0)

30(75.0)

17.2(4.5)

(15.8-18.6)

t(174) = 8.0; P < 0.001

Yes

136(77.3)

108(79.4)

28(20.6)

9.3(5.7)

(8.4-10.3)

Partner/ parent reaction

Positive

101(57.4)

87(86.1)

14(13.9)

8.0(5.4)

(7.0-9.1)

(F (2, 173) = 40.85; P < 0.001)

Negative

36(20.5)

14(38.9)

22(61.1)

15.6(5.1)

(13.9-17.3)

Ambivalent

39(22.2)

17(43.6)

22(56.4)

15.0(5.2)

(13.3-16.7)

Has other children

No

138(78.4)

88(63.8)

50(36.2)

12.0(6.2)

(11.0-13.1)

t(174) = 3.7; P < 0.001

Yes

38(21.6)

30(78.9)

8(21.1)

7.8(6.1)

(5.8-9.8)

Experienced a stressful life event

No

53(30.1)

51(96.2)

2(3.8)

6.0(4.1)

(4.9-7.1)

t(174) = −8.2; P < 0.001

Yes

123(69.9)

67(54.5)

56(45.5)

13.3(5.9)

(12.3-14.4)

Experience substance abuse

No

161(91.5)

112(69.6)

49(30.4)

10.8(6.3)

(9.8-11.8)

t(174) = −2.4; P = 0.019

Yes

15(8.5)

6(40.0)

9(60.0)

14.8(6.2)

(11.4-18.2)

Attending clinic as scheduled

No

15(8.5)

1(6.7)

14(93.3)

18.7(3.4)

(16.8-20.6)

t(174) = 5.2; P < 0.001

Yes

161(91.5)

117(72.7)

44(27.3)

10.4(6.1)

(9.5-11.4)

 

Experience domestic violence

No

108(61.4)

90(83.3)

18(16.7)

8.6(5.9)

(7.4-9.7)

t(174) = −7.8; P < 0.001

Yes

68(38.6)

28(41.2)

40(58.8)

15.2(4.8)

(14.0-16.3)

Currently diagnosed with HIV/AIDS

No

162(92.0)

117(72.2)

45(27.8)

10.6(6.3)

(9.6-11.5)

t(174) = −4.0; P < 0.001

Yes

14(8.0)

1(7.1)

13(92.9)

17.4(3.3)

(15.5-19.4)

  1. Note:One way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA); t-Independent samples t-test (Higher PHQ-9 mean scores translates to higher depression levels)
  2. Not Depressed1and Depressed2is based on PHQ classification of 0-14 and 15 onwards. Mean scores and 95% CI are based on scores of depressed participants