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Table 1 Demographic and Psychosocial Risk Factors Associated with Depression amongst respondents

From: Depression and its psychosocial risk factors in pregnant Kenyan adolescents: a cross-sectional study in a community health Centre of Nairobi

Variable Category Overall (N = 176) Non-Depressed1 (N = 118) Depressed2 (N = 58) Mean(SD) PHQ-Score 95% C.I. Group Differences
Age in years 15-16 Years 27(15.3) 7(25.9) 20(74.1) 17.2(4.0) (15.6-18.8) (F(2, 173) = 18.63; P < 0.001)
17 Years 41(23.3) 25(61.0) 16(39.0) 11.3(7.0) (9.0-13.5)
18 Years 108(61.4) 86(79.6) 22(20.4) 9.5(5.7) (8.5-10.6)
Occupation Unemployed 133(75.6) 84(63.2) 49(36.8) 11.8(6.4) (10.7-12.9) t(174) = 2.3; P = 0.020
Actively employed 43(24.4) 34(79.1) 9(20.9) 9.2(5.9) (7.3-11.0)
Education level Primary and below 141(80.1) 89(63.1) 52(36.9) 11.5(6.6) (10.4-12.6) t(174) = 1.7; P = 0.091
Secondary and above 35(19.9) 29(82.9) 6(17.1) 9.5(5.3) (7.7-11.3)
Marital status Unmarried 85(48.3) 40(47.1) 45(52.9) 14.7(5.1) (13.6-15.8) t(174) = 8.4; P < 0.001
Married 91(51.7) 78(85.7) 13(14.3) 7.8(5.7) (6.6-9.0)
Living arrangements Living with other 113(64.2) 48(58.5) 34(41.5) 8.6(5.9) (7.5-9.7) t(174) = −8.1; P < 0.001
Living with parents 63(35.8) 42(67.7) 20(32.3) 15.6(4.6) (14.4-16.8)
Monthly income < 10,000Ksh. 82(46.6) 28(87.5) 4(12.5) 12.4(6.2) (11.0-13.7) (F (2, 173) = 3.42; P = 0.035)
10,000-14,999Ksh 62(35.2) 12(31.6) 26(68.4) 10.5(6.9) (8.7-12.2)
> = 15,000Ksh 32(18.2) 106(76.8) 32(23.2) 9.2(5.0) (7.4-11.0)
Type of housing Temporary 38(21.6) 93(82.3) 20(17.7) 15.2(6.1) (13.2-17.2) t(174) = 4.7; P < 0.001
Permanent 138(78.4) 25(39.7) 38(60.3) 10.0(6.0) (9.0-11.0)
Receiving social support No 40(22.7) 10(25.0) 30(75.0) 17.2(4.5) (15.8-18.6) t(174) = 8.0; P < 0.001
Yes 136(77.3) 108(79.4) 28(20.6) 9.3(5.7) (8.4-10.3)
Partner/ parent reaction Positive 101(57.4) 87(86.1) 14(13.9) 8.0(5.4) (7.0-9.1) (F (2, 173) = 40.85; P < 0.001)
Negative 36(20.5) 14(38.9) 22(61.1) 15.6(5.1) (13.9-17.3)
Ambivalent 39(22.2) 17(43.6) 22(56.4) 15.0(5.2) (13.3-16.7)
Has other children No 138(78.4) 88(63.8) 50(36.2) 12.0(6.2) (11.0-13.1) t(174) = 3.7; P < 0.001
Yes 38(21.6) 30(78.9) 8(21.1) 7.8(6.1) (5.8-9.8)
Experienced a stressful life event No 53(30.1) 51(96.2) 2(3.8) 6.0(4.1) (4.9-7.1) t(174) = −8.2; P < 0.001
Yes 123(69.9) 67(54.5) 56(45.5) 13.3(5.9) (12.3-14.4)
Experience substance abuse No 161(91.5) 112(69.6) 49(30.4) 10.8(6.3) (9.8-11.8) t(174) = −2.4; P = 0.019
Yes 15(8.5) 6(40.0) 9(60.0) 14.8(6.2) (11.4-18.2)
Attending clinic as scheduled No 15(8.5) 1(6.7) 14(93.3) 18.7(3.4) (16.8-20.6) t(174) = 5.2; P < 0.001
Yes 161(91.5) 117(72.7) 44(27.3) 10.4(6.1) (9.5-11.4)  
Experience domestic violence No 108(61.4) 90(83.3) 18(16.7) 8.6(5.9) (7.4-9.7) t(174) = −7.8; P < 0.001
Yes 68(38.6) 28(41.2) 40(58.8) 15.2(4.8) (14.0-16.3)
Currently diagnosed with HIV/AIDS No 162(92.0) 117(72.2) 45(27.8) 10.6(6.3) (9.6-11.5) t(174) = −4.0; P < 0.001
Yes 14(8.0) 1(7.1) 13(92.9) 17.4(3.3) (15.5-19.4)
  1. Note:One way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA); t-Independent samples t-test (Higher PHQ-9 mean scores translates to higher depression levels)
  2. Not Depressed1and Depressed2is based on PHQ classification of 0-14 and 15 onwards. Mean scores and 95% CI are based on scores of depressed participants