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Table 3 Adjusted Odds Ratios (OR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CIs) for predictors of psychiatric problems

From: Selected psychiatric problems among college students in two Arab countries: comparison with the USA

  Depression (PHQ ≥ 12) (n = 1312) Anxiety (GAD ≥ 10) (n = 1266) Eating disorders (n = 571)
  OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
UM 1.00 1.00 1.00
Arab 4.82 (4.01, 5.79)b 2.72 (1.52, 4.86)b 1.98 (1.16, 3.40)a
Age 18–20 1.00 1.00 1.00
Age 21–25 1.13 (0.77, 1.66) 0.75 (0.36, 1.54) 1.04 (0.60, 1.79)
Age 26–30 1.23 (0.76, 1.97) 1.46 (1.14, 1.86)b 2.19 (0.63, 7.62)
Female 1.88 (1.72, 2.05)b 2.40 (2.17, 2.67)b 2.52 (1.40, 4.51)b
Dorms 1.00 1.00 1.00
Off-campus, single or sharing 1.33 (0.61, 2.89) 1.18 (0.90, 1.55) 0.82 (0.46, 1.46)
Off-campus, parent, relative or spouse 1.07 (0.51, 2.24) 1.86 (1.03, 3.36)a 1.69 (1.00, 2.85)
Graduate 0.78 (0.57, 1.08) 0.52 (0.35, 0.78)b 0.31 (0.10, 0.97)a
Finances aren’t a problem 1.00 1.00 1.00
Tight but doing fine 1.57 (1.16, 2.13)b 1.86 (1.79, 1.94)b 1.35 (0.79, 2.30)
It’s a financial struggle 7.63 (3.50, 16.65)b 12.10 (7.45, 19.64)b 2.83 (1.11, 7.24)a
In a relationship 0.90 (0.83, 0.97)b 0.93 (0.63, 1.38) 1.31 (0.80, 2.13)
GPA
 A+ to A- 1.00 1.00 1.00
 B+ to B- 1.60 (1.08, 2.38)a 1.35 (1.11, 1.64)b 0.78 (0.38, 1.60)
 C+ and below 2.79 (0.74, 10.55)b 1.51 (0.74, 3.09) 0.94 (0.49, 1.79)
Not religious or not religious at all 1.00 1.00 1.00
Fairly or very religious 0.57 (0.38, 0.86)b 0.46 (0.31, 0.71)b 0.89 (0.67, 1.18)
National of country 1.00 (0.78, 1.29) 0.98 (0.79, 1.21) 1.19 (0.67, 2.13)
  1. asignificant at 5% level
  2. bsignificant at 1% level