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Table 3 Multinomial Logistic Regression among Stroke Survivors with Co-occurring Depression in terms of Depression Treatment Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (2002–2012)

From: Prevalence, patterns and predictors of depression treatment among community-dwelling older adults with stroke in the United States: a cross sectional study

  AD Only (N = 268) AD & Psych (N = 47)
AOR 95% CI Sig AOR 95% CI Sig
Predisposing Factors
 Age
  65,+ yrs. vs 50–64 yrs 5.80 [2.48,13.5] *** 1.16 [0.42,3.18]  
 Gender
  Female vs Men 0.69 [0.33,1.42]   0.53 [0.21,1.31]  
 Race/Ethnicity
  Other vs White 1.60 [0.77,3.32]   1.45 [0.58,3.61]  
Enabling Factors
 Marital Status
  Other vs Married 1.02 [0.45,2.31]   1.17 [0.32,4.27]  
 Education
  LT HS vs > HS 0.07 [0.02,0.27] *** 0.08 [0.02,0.37] **
  HS vs > HS 0.24 [0.08,0.75] * 0.57 [0.13,2.53]  
 Insurance
  Public vs others 0.75 [0.22,2.54]   3.54 [0.65,19.2]  
 Poverty Status
  Mid Inc./High Inc. vs Poor/Near Poor 1.60 [0.66,3.87]   3.90 [1.19,12.8] *
Need Factors
 Pain
  Quite/Extreme vs No pain 1.09 [0.32,3.67]   1.02 [0.22,4.68]  
  Little/Moderate vs No pain 1.97 [0.54,7.20]   1.11 [0.23,5.33]  
 Perceived Physical Health Status
  Good vs Ex/vgood 0.49 [0.08,2.93]   0.72 [0.09,5.82]  
  Fair/poor vs Ex/vgood 0.72 [0.22,2.41]   0.19 [0.06,0.60] **
 Perceived Mental Health Status
  Good vs MH Ex/vgood 4.55 [2.26,9.15] *** 11.04 [3.33,36.6] ***
  Fair/poor vs MH Ex/vgood 3.60 [1.40,9.27] ** 19.19 [5.41,68.1] ***
 ADL Disability
  Yes vs No 2.05 [0.72,5.86]   0.39 [0.11,1.34]  
 IADL Disability
  Yes vs No 1.57 [0.52,4.78]   2.20 [0.64,7.50]  
 Functional Disability
  Yes vs No 0.19 [0.04,0.83] * 0.31 [0.06,1.65]  
 Activities Disability
  Yes vs No 3.63 [0.89,14.8]   3.73 [0.71,19.6]  
 Chronic Disease Groups
  One vs None 0.54 [0.17,1.69]   1.55 [0.41,5.86]  
  Two vs None 0.91 [0.27,3.06]   1.33 [0.36,4.89]  
  Three or more vs None 0.19 [0.07,0.48] *** 0.62 [0.06,5.92]  
 CVD
  Yes vs No 0.02 [0.00,1.34]   0.08 [0.00,4.72]  
 Anxiety
  Yes vs No 0.79 [0.31,1.99]   1.09 [0.40,2.93]  
 Hyperlipidemia
  Yes vs No 1.35 [0.69,2.66]   2.73 [0.94,7.96]  
Personal Health Practices Factors
 BMI Status
  Overwt/Obese vs Und/normal 5.18 [1.93,13.8] ** 9.35 [2.98,29.3] ***
 Smoking Status
  Curr smoker vs Other 6.40 [1.51,27.0] * 6.04 [1.42,25.6] *
External Environmental Factors
 Metropolitan Status
  Non-Metropolitan vs Metropolitan 1.53 [0.67,3.46]   3.42 [1.13,10.2] *
 Region
  Mid-west vs Northeast 4.05 [1.28,12.7] * 0.64 [0.17,2.40]  
  South vs Northeast 0.83 [0.30,2.27]   0.20 [0.06,0.63] **
  West vs Northeast 0.53 [0.12,2.37]   0.36 [0.05,2.51]  
  1. Based on 370 older adults (age ≥ 50 years) with self-reported stroke and depression who were alive during the calendar year (2002, 2004, 2006, 2008, 2010, and 2012)
  2. Abbreviations -No Dep Tx No Depression Treatment, AD only Antidepressants only, AD & Psych Antidepressants with Psychotherapy, LT HS Less than High School, HS High School, Wt% Weighted percentage, Sig Significant difference, Ex/vgood Excellent or Very Good, ADL Activity of Daily Living, IADL Instrumental Activity of Daily Living, Und/normal Underweight or Normal, Overwt/Obese Overweight or Obese, BMI Body Mass Index, AOR Adjusted odds ratio, Mid Inc./High Inc. Middle Income or High Income
  3. Asterisks represent statistical significance group differences by type of treatment compared to the reference group based on multinomial logistic regression. The reference group for the dependent variable in the multinomial logistic regression was “No Depression Treatment” (N = 55)
  4. ***p < 0.001; ** 0.001 ≤ p < 0.01; *0.01 ≤ p < 0.05