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Table 4 Summary of findings on bipolar disorder

From: Associations between loneliness and perceived social support and outcomes of mental health problems: a systematic review

Reference Predictor variable Outcome variable Results (++ < 0·05 adjusted; + < 0·05 unadjusted; − non-significant)
Koenders et al. (2015) [60] Perceived social support Depressive symptomatology;
Depression related functional impairment;
Manic symptomatology;
Manic related functional impairment
++
++
Lower perceived support predicted more depression related functional impairment during the subsequent 3 months (β (SE) = − 0.14 (0.03), p < 0.001), and with more depressive symptomatology at the subsequent time point (β (SE) = − 0.14 (0.04), p = 0.002). No significant associations between perceived social support and manic symptoms and impairment were observed

Cohen et al. (2004) [63] Perceived social support Recurrence ++ After controlling for clinical variables, lower social support of any kind significantly predicted recurrence of any type at one year (β (SE) = − 0.09 (0.04), p = 0.03, OR = 0.92, 95% CI 0.85–0.99)
Daniels (2000) [61] Perceived social support Depressive symptomatology;
Manic symptomatology;
Functional impairment
++
++
++
Lower perceived support was a significant predictor of more severe depressive symptomatology after controlling for initial levels of depression (R2 = 0.67, F = 34.15, ΔR2 = 0.05, ΔF = 5.24, beta = − 0.25). Lower perceived support significantly predicted more severe manic symptomatology over three months (R2 = 0.18, F = 3.74, ΔR2 = 0.10, ΔF = 4.18, beta = − 0.32). Lower perceived social support significantly predicted impairment in functioning in the participants who completed their life charts for 90 consecutive days, after controlling for initial levels of functional impairment (R2 = 0.44, F = 5.48, ΔR2 = 0.41, ΔF = 10.22, beta = − 0.67).
Johnson et al. (1999) [62] Perceived social support Time to recovery;
Severity of depressive symptoms; Severity of manic symptoms
++
++
Lower social support was a significant predictor of longer time to recovery in Cox regression survival analyses (χ2 (1, N = 52) change = 5.89, one-tailed p < 0.01). In hierarchical multiple regression analyses, low social support predicted higher depression over time (regression coefficient = − 1.33, p < 0.01, R2 change = 0.07, F change = 11.70). Social support did not have significant impact on mania score at 6-month follow-up