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Table 4 Subgroup analyses (including outliers)

From: The effect of positive psychology interventions on well-being and distress in clinical samples with psychiatric or somatic disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Outcome measure Criterion Subgroup N comp Hedges’ g 95% CI I 2 Z
Well-being Duration <= 8 weeks 22 0.15 0.00–0.30 42.23 1.95
>  8 weeks 11 0.59 0.06–1.11 88.74 2.19*
Format Group 17 0.33 0.01–0.66 84.87 2.01*
Individual 16 0.20 −0.03–0.43 58.89 1.74
Guidance Therapist 26 0.39 0.16–0.62 78.63 3.30***
Without therapist 7 −0.12 −0.43–0.20 49.96 −0.73
Disorder Psychiatric 15 0.26 −0.02–0.53 62.56 1.83
Somatic 18 0.28 −0.01–0.57 83.99 1.91
Depression Duration <= 8 weeks 16 0.18 0.03–0.33 27.56 2.38*
>  8 weeks 10 0.54 0.08–0.99 80.02 2.31*
Format Group 15 0.23 −0.01–0.47 64.37 1.91
Individual 11 0.33 0.04–0.61 61.60 2.26*
Guidance Therapist 21 0.31 0.09–0.52 68.95 2.74**
Without therapist 5 0.19 −0.05–0.43 0.00 1.55
Disorder Psychiatric 14 0.37 0.01–0.73 76.94 2.03*
Somatic 12 0.26 0.13–0.39 0.00 3.86***
Anxiety Duration <= 8 weeks 7 0.41 0.25–0.57 0.00 5.02***
>  8 weeks 7 0.59 0.03–1.16 81.11 2.05*
Format Group 7 0.52 0.08–0.96 81.15 2.31**
Individual 7 0.49 0.28–0.70 0.00 4.53***
Guidance Therapist 12 0.43 0.17–0.70 67.87 3.21**
Without therapist 2 0.74 0.24–1.24 0.00 2.89**
Disorder Psychiatric 8 0.65 0.12–1.18 79.75 2.41**
Somatic 6 0.38 0.21–0.54 0.00 4.56***
Stress Duration <= 8 weeks 3 0.23 −0.14–0.59 0.00 1.20
>  8 weeks 3 −0.33 −1.77–1.11 91.69 −0.45
Format Group 3 −0.33 −1.77–1.11 91.69 −0.45
Individual 3 0.23 −0.14–0.59 0.00 1.20
Guidance Therapist 3 −0.33 −1.77–1.11 91.69 −0.45
Without therapist 3 0.23 −0.14–0.59 0.00 1.20
Disorder Psychiatric 5 −0.06 −0.84–0.73 84.16 −0.14
Somatic 1 0.18 −0.39–0.74 0.00 0.61
  1. Note. Ncomp, number of comparisons; CI confidence interval. *p < 0.05. ** p < 0.01. *** p < 0.001