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Table 2 List of recommendations when addressing functional recovery of patients with schizophrenia

From: Functional recovery in patients with schizophrenia: recommendations from a panel of experts

The concept of functional recovery
 Despite the lack of a unified definition of functional recovery, it is recommended to ponder quality of life, cognition and clinical remission when considering functional recovery in research and routine practice.
 Functional recovery should be considered a goal in the management of patients with schizophrenia.
 Functional recovery should be always included among endpoints of clinical trials assessing patients with schizophrenia.
Assessment of functional recovery
 Irrespective of the tools used for assessing functional recovery, information for appraising it should be gathered from patients, their relatives (and/or caregivers), and the healthcare team.
 Irrespective of the tools used for assessing functional recovery, the patient’s socio-cultural background should be considered when assessing functional recovery.
Factors influencing functional recovery
 When seeking for the achievement of functional recovery, the combined influence of stressful life events, substance abuse, socioeconomic conditions, and family relationships, should be considered.
 Although negative symptoms have a great impact on functioning, clinicians should not focus exclusively on symptom remission when considering functional recovery.
Psychosocial interventions and functional recovery
 Psychosocial interventions are necessary to achieve functional recovery. A combination of various therapies (including social skills training, family therapy, cognitive rehabilitation, social cognitive training, and occupational programs) is likely to be most useful in achieving functional recovery.
Pharmacological treatment and functional recovery
 Functional recovery should be considered in decision-making on pharmacological treatments.
The perspective of patients and their relatives on functional recovery
 The attitudes of all stakeholders (i.e., patients, their relatives, and clinicians) influence functional recovery. Hence, when seeking for achieving functional recovery, all these perspectives should be taken into account.