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Table 2 Summary statistics of CES-D 10 outcome indicators including individual items, by country

From: Examination of performance of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale Short Form 10 among African youth in poor, rural households

  (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
Zimbabwe Zambia Tanzania Malawi Kenya
mean mean mean mean mean
Panel A: All youth (individual items (1)-(10) range: 1–4)
 CES-D scale 8.73 7.89 11.76 9.95 8.61
 Depressed (CESD≥10) 0.38 0.33 0.64 0.48 0.37
 (1) Did you sleep well? (reverse coded) 1.42 1.80 2.18 1.72 1.47
 (2) Were you happy? (reverse coded) 1.55 1.92 2.34 1.96 1.67
 (3) Did you have trouble concentrating? 2.07 1.85 2.13 1.94 2.08
 (4) Did you feel hopeful about the future? (reverse coded) 2.05 1.96 2.56 2.35 1.58
 (5) Did you feel that everything you did was an effort? 2.67 2.33 2.53 2.33 2.81
 (6) Did you feel lonely? 1.92 1.62 2.03 1.78 1.90
 (7) Did you feel depressed? 1.89 1.51 2.29 1.93 1.74
 (8) Did you feel that you could not get going? 1.77 1.63 2.08 2.41 1.83
 (9) Were you bothered by things that don’t usually bother you? 1.68 1.61 1.73 1.77 1.82
 (10) Did you feel fearful? 1.72 1.65 1.90 1.76 1.71
N 918 1982 1189 2098 651
Alpha 0.74 0.70 0.70 0.71 0.76
Age range (years) 13–19 13–17 14–28 13–19 15–25
Panel B: Youth aged 18 and younger (individual items (1)-(10) range: 1–4)
 CES-D scale 8.73 7.89 10.27 9.94 8.12
 Depressed (CESD≥10) 0.38 0.33 0.53 0.47 0.35
 (1) Did you sleep well? (reverse coded) 1.43 1.80 2.05 1.72 1.39
 (2) Were you happy? (reverse coded) 1.55 1.92 2.15 1.96 1.63
 (3) Did you have trouble concentrating? 2.08 1.85 1.90 1.94 2.02
 (4) Did you feel hopeful about the future? (reverse coded) 2.05 1.96 2.52 2.35 1.48
 (5) Did you feel that everything you did was an effort? 2.66 2.33 2.44 2.32 2.75
 (6) Did you feel lonely? 1.90 1.62 1.90 1.78 1.84
 (7) Did you feel depressed? 1.89 1.51 1.96 1.94 1.72
 (8) Did you feel that you could not get going? 1.77 1.63 1.97 2.40 1.83
 (9) Were you bothered by things that don’t usually bother you? 1.68 1.61 1.58 1.77 1.77
 (10) Did you feel fearful? 1.73 1.65 1.80 1.77 1.69
N 869 1982 611 1979 341
Alpha 0.75 0.70 0.67 0.72 0.78
Age range (years) 13–18 13–17 14–18 13–18 15–18
  1. CES-D scale ranges from 0 to 30; while Depressed is a binary outcome indicating a scale value higher or equal to 10. Samples are taken from baseline surveys of cash transfer evaluations and include youth from poor and vulnerable rural households, with the exception of Kenya for which measures were collected at endline and include only the control group