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Table 3 Rotated factor analysis of CES-D 10 items (all youth sample)

From: Examination of performance of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale Short Form 10 among African youth in poor, rural households

  Zimbabwe Zambia Tanzania Malawi Kenya  
  (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13)
All items range from 1 to 4 Factor 1 Factor 2 Factor 1 Factor 2 Factor 3 Factor 1 Factor 2 Factor 3 Factor 1 Factor 2 Factor 1 Factor 2 Factor 3
(1) Did you sleep well? (reverse coded) 0.12 0.71 0.12 0.85 −0.05 0.07 0.76 −0.11 0.10 0.74 0.16 0.81 0.00
(2) Were you happy? (reverse coded) 0.27 0.72 0.09 0.86 0.05 0.03 0.77 −0.29 0.14 0.78 0.06 0.82 0.08
(3) Did you have trouble concentrating? 0.56 −0.11 0.32 0.17 0.56 0.37 0.51 0.25 0.63 0.08 0.40 0.41 0.29
(4) Did you feel hopeful about the future? (reverse coded) 0.09 0.65 0.11 0.41 −0.62 0.06 0.24 − 0.74 − 0.16 0.57 0.27 0.42 −0.49
(5) Did you feel that everything you did was an effort? 0.37 −0.46 0.11 0.06 0.81 0.01 −0.02 0.80 0.64 0.02 0.13 0.12 0.77
(6) Did you feel lonely? 0.72 0.14 0.64 0.03 0.14 0.57 0.39 0.12 0.63 0.07 0.65 0.14 0.32
(7) Did you feel depressed? 0.76 0.14 0.77 0.10 0.04 0.58 0.52 0.14 0.59 0.25 0.67 0.18 0.28
(8) Did you feel that you could not get going? 0.74 0.12 0.75 0.12 0.03 0.79 −0.04 −0.05 0.60 0.10 0.72 0.11 −0.06
(9) Were you bothered by things that don’t usually bother you? 0.70 0.16 0.73 0.14 0.07 0.75 0.06 −0.10 0.70 0.03 0.74 0.06 −0.05
(10) Did you feel fearful? 0.66 0.09 0.59 0.22 0.18 0.57 0.29 0.00 0.68 0.07 0.67 0.23 −0.04
N 918 918 1982 1982 1982 1189 1189 1189 2098 2098 651 651 651
Alpha 0.49 0.21 0.46 0.38 0.18 0.39 0.38 0.00 0.46 0.30 0.43 0.32 0.15
  1. Samples are taken from baseline surveys of cash transfer evaluations and include youth from poor and vulnerable rural households, with the exception of Kenya for which measures were collected at endline and include only the control group
  2. The highest factor loadings for each item are in bold