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Table 6 Ordinary Least Squares multivariate regression examining assocations with CES-D scale (range: 0–30)

From: Examination of performance of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale Short Form 10 among African youth in poor, rural households

  (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
Zimbabwe Zambia Tanzania Malawi Kenya
Panel A: All youth
 Male − 0.35 (0.37) 0.14 (0.23) −1.15*** (0.38) − 0.12 (0.44) 1.09** (0.41)
 Age (years) 0.18** (0.08) 0.22*** (0.07) 0.33*** (0.04) 0.07 (0.08) 0.19* (0.10)
 Chronically ill (3+ months in past year) 1.13 (0.96) 0.48 (1.40) –– 0.15 (0.50) 0.71 (1.02)
 Enrolled in school or completed secondary −0.85** (0.37) −0.58** (0.29) −0.37 (0.44) −1.02** (0.41) −0.20 (0.60)
 Log per capita monthly expenditure −1.28*** (0.41) −0.82*** (0.20) −0.18 (0.18) − 0.59** (0.24) 0.50 (0.59)
 Constant 12.19*** (1.85) 8.57*** (1.47) 5.89*** (1.11) 15.67*** (2.54) 1.01 (5.40)
N 916 1982 1189 2098 651
R-squared 0.06 0.04 0.09 0.01 0.03
Age range (years) 13–19 13–17 14–28 13–19 15–25
Panel B:18 years and younger
 Male −0.28 (0.37) 0.13 (0.23) −1.08** (0.48) −0.06 (0.45) 1.51*** (0.51)
 Age 0.24** (0.11) 0.22*** (0.07) 0.44** (0.17) 0.10 (0.11) 0.52 (0.38)
 Chronically ill (3+ months in past year) 1.09 (0.99) 0.56 (1.39) – – 0.16 (0.54) 2.35 (1.95)
 Orphan (both parents) 0.15 (0.35) 0.49* (0.28) – – 0.30 (0.31) 0.72 (0.77)
 Missing orphan status 0.15 (1.66) 1.05 (0.96) – – −0.50 (0.73) 2.95 (4.22)
 Enrolled in school −0.84** (0.39) −0.65** (0.28) − 0.41 (0.43) −0.99** (0.44) −1.21 (0.93)
 Log per capita monthly expenditure −1.37*** (0.42) −0.82*** (0.20) −0.24 (0.22) − 0.56** (0.23) 1.03 (0.67)
 Constant 11.42***
(2.20)
8.29*** (1.48) 3.56 (2.76) 14.78*** (2.82) −8.40 (9.98)
N 866 1982 611 1979 341
R-squared 0.06 0.04 0.04 0.01 0.08
Age range (years) 13–18 13–17 14–18 13–18 15–18
  1. Robust standard errors in parentheses; *** p < 0.01, ** p < 0.05, * p < 0.1. Geographic fixed effects for region or district of randomization stratification are included as appropriate by country but not reported
  2. Samples are taken from baseline surveys of cash transfer evaluations and include youth from poor and vulnerable rural households, with the exception of Kenya for which measures were collected at endline and include only the control group. In Tanzania, a wealth index was used in place of monthly per capita expenditure, constructed via principle component analysis including household assets, dwelling characteristics. In Tanzania, chronic illness and orphan status were not collected