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Table 3 Health Status, Service Use, and Estimated IQ of Prisoners with ADHD only, TBI only, and ADHD with co-morbid TBI Compared with Inmates with Neither

From: Health-related quality of life in prisoners with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and head injury

  ADHD only
n = 43, 11.0%
TBI only
n = 116, 29.7%
ADHD with co-morbid TBI
n = 53, 13.6%
HUI3 HRQoL specific attribute scoresa beta coef. (se) beta coef. (se) beta coef. (se)
 Vision −0.04 (0.02) −0.01 (0.01) − 0.05 (0.02)**
 Hearing − 0.50 (0.30) −0.09 (0.24) − 0.57 (0.30)
 Speech −0.07 (0.07) − 0.05 (0.05) −0.10 (0.06)
 Ambulation −0.37 (0.40) −0.48 (0.32) − 0.81 (0.37)*
 Dexterity − 0.02 (0.16) − 0.21 (0.12) − 0.06 (0.15)
 Emotion −0.17 (0.07)* − 0.03 (0.05) −0.23 (0.06)***
 Cognition − 0.24 (0.07)** − 0.06 (0.05) −0.32 (0.07)***
 Pain − 0.09 (0.10) −0.15 (0.07)* − 0.23 (0.09)*
QALY derived by HUI3 composite scorea,b,c − 0.20 (0.06)** − 0.05 (0.04) −0.30 (0.05)***†
Service use (3 months) OR (95%CI) OR (95%CI) OR (95%CI)
 General Practitioner 1.09 (0.33, 5.60) 2.15 (0.75, 6.14) 1.09 (0.36, 3.32)
 Physical Health Nurse 1.67 (0.45, 6.19) 0.94 (0.41, 2.13) 1.57 (0.48, 5.12)
 Mental Health Nurse 1.59 (0.79, 3.22) 0.99 (0.59, 1.65) 3.08 (1.59, 5.98)**
 Addiction Nurse 0.51 (0.23, 1.12) 1.13 (0.69, 1.85) 2.12 (1.10, 4.09)*
Estimated IQ, mean (sd)a − 4.68 (2.48) −1.62 (1.72) −7.62 (2.34)**
  1. Note: The referent is inmates with neither ADHD nor TBI, n = 178
  2. aModels adjusted for age and CD
  3. bHUI3 composite score was based on 362 inmates with complete HUI3 data (missing some specific attribute scores on 28 inmates)
  4. cAll tobit models account for censoring at the upper level of the outcome (QALY)
  5. †Linear combination of coefficients for ADHD/TBI v. ADHD-only is not statistically significant; Linear combination of coefficients for ADHD/TBI v. TBI-only 0.25 (0.06), p < 0.001
  6. *p < 0.05
  7. **p < 0.01
  8. ***p < 0.001