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Table 3 Effect Size (ES) and percentage of patients in outcome categories based on raw HoNOS scores and classification according to various ESmedium, SEM, and JTRCI-90 threshold values, and according to JTRCI95, JTCS, and JTRCI&CS

From: Treatment results for severe psychiatric illness: which method is best suited to denote the outcome of mental health care?

Institution   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Total Rank ordera Rho
Continuous: ES 0.06 0.18 0.19 0.24 0.29 0.29 0.32 0.38 0.38 0.39 0.29 1 2 3 4 5/6 7 8/9 10  
Categorical:
 ESmedium ≤ −4 deteriorated 20.0 19.3 20.5 20.7 15.2 11.4 17.8 14.8 20.9 14.1 17.3 9 4 3 1 2 7 5 8 10 6 .35
 -4 < ESmedium < 4 unchanged 56.2 48.4 43.7 40.0 49.7 57.6 45.0 42.7 34.4 46.7 45.9 6 1 5 2 10 7 3 8 4 9 .38
 ESmedium ≥ 4 improved 23.8 32.3 35.8 39.3 35.1 31.0 37.2 42.5 44.7 39.2 36.8 1 5 2 8 4 3 6 9 10 7 .71*
 SEM ≤ −5 deteriorated 15.5 13.0 15.3 17.6 12.5 9.1 14.5 11.0 16.2 11.1 13.5 4 9 1 3 7 2 5 10 8 6 .35
 -5 < SEM < 5 unchanged 63.4 60.4 56.3 49.3 57.1 68.1 53.7 52.7 45.9 54.8 55.5 6 1 2 5 3 10 7 8 4 9 .55
 SEM ≥ 5 improved 21.1 26.6 28.4 33.1 30.4 22.8 31.9 36.3 37.8 34.2 30.9 1 6 2 3 5 7 4 10 8 9 .79**
 JTRCI90 ≤ −9 deteriorated 8.3 4.2 7.0 9.3 3.6 2.3 5.1 3.9 7.6 2.5 5.4 4 1 9 3 7 2 8 5 10 6 .43
 9 < JTRCI90 < 9 unchanged 85.3 82.8 80.0 71.4 87.5 88.0 82.2 79.2 69.0 83.9 80.6 6 5 1 10 2 7 3 8 4 9 .24
 JTRCI90 ≥ 9 improved 6.4 13.0 13.0 19.3 8.9 9.6 12.7 16.9 23.3 13.6 14.1 1 5 6 7 2/3 10 8 4 9 .51
 JTRCI (change ≥8) reliable change 9.4 14.6 14.9 19.7 11.3 14.3 17.4 21.7 27.0 15.6 17.3 1 5 6 2 3 10 7 4 8 9 .64*
 JTCS (post < 5) clinical change 13.6 9.9 7.0 7.2 8.6 14.9 16.0 15.5 15.2 21.1 13.3 3 4 5 2 10 1 6 8 7 9 .56
 JTRCI&CS deteriorated 9.1 5.2 8.4 10.3 3.9 3.8 5.9 5.7 10.6 4.5 6.7 9 4 1 3 7 8 2 10 5 6 .14
unchanged 81.5 80.2 76.7 70.0 84.8 81.9 76.6 72.6 62.4 79.9 75.9 5 6 1 2 10 3 7 8 4 9 .39
improved 4.5 4.7 3.3 4.1 3.0 6.1 6.3 8.7 9.6 8.0 6.1 5 3 4 1 2 6 7 10 8 9 .75*
recovered 4.9 9.9 11.6 15.5 8.3 8.2 11.1 13.0 17.4 7.5 11.2 1 10 6 5 2 7 3 8 4 9 .24
  1. \( ES=\frac{M_{pretest}-{M}_{posttest}}{SD_{pretest}}; \) \( SEM= SD\times \sqrt{1-{r}_{ii}} \); \( {JT}_{RCI}=\frac{M_{pretest}-{M}_{posttest}}{SEM} \); \( {JT}_{CS}=\frac{SD_{pre}\ast {M}_{post}+{SD}_{post}\ast {M}_{pre}}{SD_{pre}+{SD}_{post}} \)
  2. ESmedium implies a change of at least 4 points; SEM implies 5 points change or more; JTRCI90 implies 9 points change; JTRCI90, JTCS, and JTRCI&CS imply 8 points change and transgression of a score of 5 from pretest to posttest. Rho is Spearman rank correlation coefficient between the ranking based on an indicator and ranking based on ES (*p < .05; **p < .01)
  3. aRanked from the worst (1) to the best (10) outcome according to the indicator; categories “unchanged” and “deteriorated” have a reversed rank order: the fewer the patients the better the outcome