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Table 2 Hazard Ratios and Confidence Intervals (95%) of incident depression according to the level of competitiveness, tension and dependency

From: Self-perceived level of competitiveness, tension and dependency and depression risk in the SUN cohort

  Low Moderate High P for trend
  (1–4) (5–6) (7–10)  
Competitiveness
 N 1170 3788 10,646  
 Incidence of depression 72 217 613  
 Person/years 12,075 38,901 107,161  
 Crude rates 1 (ref) 0.90 (0.69–1.18) 0.92 (0.72–1.17) 0.747
 Model 1 1 (ref) 0.90 (0.69–1.17) 0.95 (0.75–1.21) 0.826
 Model 2 1 (ref) 0.89 (0.68–1.16) 0.96 (0.75–1.22) 0.721
 Model 3 1 (ref) 0.89 (0.68–1.17) 0.95 (0.75–1.22) 0.782
 Model 4 1 (ref) 0.84 (0.64–1.10) 0.78 (0.61–1.01) 0.105
Tension
 N 3852 4766 6986  
 Incidence of depression 149 238 515  
 Person/years 38,793 47,819 71,527  
 Crude rates 1 (ref) 1.32 (1.08–1.63) 1.86 (1.55–2.23) < 0.001
 Model 1 1 (ref) 1.29 (1.05–1.58) 1.81 (1.51–2.18) < 0.001
 Model 2 1 (ref) 1.31 (1.07–1.61) 1.83 (1.53–2.20) < 0.001
 Model 3 1 (ref) 1.30 (1.06–1.60) 1.80 (1.50–2.17) < 0.001
 Model 4 1 (ref) 1.32 (1.07–1.62) 1.85 (1.52–2.24) < 0.001
Dependency
 N 10,407 1653 3544  
 Incidence of depression 547 117 238  
 Person/years 105,498 17,049 35,592  
 Crude rates 1 (ref) 1.36 (1.11–1.67) 1.30 (1.12–1.52) < 0.001
 Model 1 1 (ref) 1.31 (1.07–1.60) 1.30 (1.12–1.52) < 0.001
 Model 2 1 (ref) 1.31 (1.06–1.61) 1.30 (1.12–1.52) < 0.001
 Model 3 1 (ref) 1.30 (1.06–1.59) 1.30 (1.11–1.52) < 0.001
 Model 4 1 (ref) 1.24 (1.01–1.54) 1.23 (1.06–1.44) 0.004
  1. Model 1: Adjusted for age at recruitment (10 groups), sex, total energy intake (continuous variable)
  2. Model 2: Additionally adjusted for BMI (continuous variable), tobacco consumption (never, former, current smoker < 15 cigarettes per day, and current smoker > 15 cigarettes per day), alcohol consumption (continuous variable), total physical activity per week (continuous variable), sedentariness (continuous variable), Mediterranean diet score (continuous variable), total years of college (continuous variable), health professionals (yes, no), marital status (single, married, and others), employment status (employed, unemployed/ retired, homemaker and student), prevalence of diabetes (yes, no), prevalence of hypertension (yes, no), prevalence of hypercholesterolemia (yes, no), prevalence of cancer (yes, no)
  3. Model 3: Additionally adjusted for fast food consumption (continuous variable), trans fatty acids intake (continuous variable), nutritional supplements intake (yes, no), snack consumption between main meals (yes, no), and follows a special diet (yes, no)
  4. Model 4: Additionally adjusted for the other two personality traits according to assessed trait; competitiveness, (low, moderate, high), tension (low, moderate, high), o dependency (low, moderate, high)